Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors


Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Strain-Gating Piezotronics: Researchers Create New Class of Piezoelectric Logic Devices Using Zinc Oxide Nanowires

Georgia Tech researchers measure the performance of an array of zinc oxide nanodevices fabricated on a flexible polymer substrate. (Click image for high-resolution version. Credit: Gary Meek)
Georgia Tech researchers measure the performance of an array of zinc oxide nanodevices fabricated on a flexible polymer substrate. (Click image for high-resolution version. Credit: Gary Meek)

Abstract:
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a new class of electronic logic device in which current is switched by an electric field generated by the application of mechanical strain to zinc oxide nanowires.

By John Toon

Strain-Gating Piezotronics: Researchers Create New Class of Piezoelectric Logic Devices Using Zinc Oxide Nanowires

Atlanta, GA | Posted on September 3rd, 2010

The devices, which include transistors and diodes, could be used in nanometer-scale robotics, nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS), micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic devices. The mechanical action used to initiate the strain could be as simple as pushing a button, or be created by the flow of a liquid, stretching of muscles or the movement of a robotic component.

In traditional field-effect transistors, an electrical field switches - or "gates" - the flow of electrical current through a semiconductor. Instead of using an electrical signal, the new logic devices create the switching field by mechanically deforming zinc oxide nanowires. The deformation creates strain in the nanowires, generating an electric field through the piezoelectric effect - which creates electrical charge in certain crystalline materials when they are subjected to mechanical strain.

"When we apply a strain to a nanowire placed across two metal electrodes, we create a field, which is strong enough to serve as the gating voltage," said Zhong Lin Wang, a Regents professor in the Georgia Tech School of Materials Science and Engineering. "This type of device would allow mechanical action to be interfaced with electronics, and could be the basis for a new form of logic device that uses the piezoelectric potential in place of a gate voltage."

Wang, who has published a series of articles on the devices in such journals as Nano Letters, Advanced Materials and Applied Physics Letters, calls this new class of nanometer-scale device "piezotronics" because they use piezoelectric potential to tune and gate the charge transport process in semiconductors. The devices rely on the unique properties of zinc oxide nanostructures, which are both semiconducting and piezoelectric.

The transistors and diodes add to the family of nanodevices developed by Wang and his research team, and could be combined into systems in which all components are based on the same zinc oxide material. The researchers have previously announced development of nanometer-scale generators that produce a voltage by converting mechanical motion from the environment, and nanowire sensors for measuring pH and detecting ultraviolet light.

"The family of devices we have developed can be joined together to create self-powered, autonomous and intelligent nanoscale systems," Wang said. "We can create complex systems totally based on zinc oxide nanowires that have memory, processing, and sensing capabilities powered by electrical energy scavenged from the environment."

Using strain-gated transistors fabricated on a flexible polymer substrate, the researchers have demonstrated basic logic operations - including NOR, XOR and NAND gates and multiplexer/demultiplexer functions - by simply applying different types of strain to the zinc oxide nanowires. They have also created an inverter by placing strain-gated transistors on both sides of a flexible substrate.

"Using the strain-gated transistor as a building block, we can build complicated logic," Wang added. "This is the first time that a mechanical action has been used to create a logic operation."

A strain-gated transistor is made of a single zinc oxide nanowire with its two ends - the source and drain electrodes - fixed to a polymer substrate by metal contacts. Flexing the devices reverses their polarity as the strain changes from compressive to tensile on opposite sides.

The devices operate at low frequencies - the kind created by human interaction and the ambient environment - and would not challenge traditional CMOS transistors for speed in conventional applications. The devices respond to very small mechanical forces, Wang noted.

The Georgia Tech group has also learned to control conductivity in zinc oxide nanodevices using laser emissions that take advantage of the unique photo-excitation properties of the material. When ultraviolet light from a laser strikes a metal contact attached to a zinc oxide structure, it creates electron-hole pairs which change the height of the Schottky barrier at the zinc oxide-metal contact.

These conductivity-changing characteristics of the laser emissions can be used in tandem with alterations in mechanical strain to provide more precise control over the conducting capabilities of a device.

"The laser improves the conductivity of the structure," Wang noted. "The laser effect is in contrast to the piezoelectric effect. The laser effect reduces the barrier height, while the piezoelectric effect increases the barrier height."

Wang has called these new devices fabricated by coupling piezoelectric, photon excitation and semiconductor properties "piezo-phototronic" devices.

The research group has also created hybrid logic devices that use zinc oxide nanowires to control current moving through single-walled carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes, which were produced by researchers at Duke University, can be either p-type or n-type.

The research has been supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition to Wang, the research team includes Wenzhuo Wu, Yaguang Wei, Youfan Hu, Weihua Liu, Minbaek Lee, Yan Zhang, Yanling Chang, Shu Xiang, Lei Ding, Jie Liu and Robert Snyder.

"Our work with strain-gated devices provides a new approach to logic operations that performs mechanical-electrical actions in one structural unit using a single material," Wang noted. "These transistors could provide new processing and memory capabilities in very small and portable devices."

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Media Relations Assistance: John Toon or Abby Vogel Robinson

Copyright © Georgia Institute of Technology

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

Oxford Instruments and Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory collaborate to develop HTS magnet technology components for high field superconducting magnet systems June 29th, 2016

Texas A&M Chemist Says Trapped Electrons To Blame For Lack Of Battery Efficiency: Forget mousetraps — today’s scientists will get the cheese if they manage to build a better battery June 28th, 2016

Building a smart cardiac patch: 'Bionic' cardiac patch could one day monitor and respond to cardiac problems June 28th, 2016

New, better way to build circuits for world's first useful quantum computers June 28th, 2016

Microfluidics/Nanofluidics

Droplets finally all the same size -- in a nanodroplet library June 20th, 2016

NanoLabNL boosts quality of research facilities as Dutch Toekomstfonds invests firmly June 10th, 2016

Little ANTs: Researchers build the world's tiniest engine May 3rd, 2016

POSTECH researchers develop a control algorithm for more accurate lab-on-a-chip devices April 6th, 2016

NEMS

Nano-photonics meets nano-mechanics: Controlling on-chip nano-optics by graphene nano-opto-mechanics January 22nd, 2016

Mechanical quanta see the light January 20th, 2016

Nanodevices at one-hundredth the cost: New techniques for building microelectromechanical systems show promise December 20th, 2015

Nano-mechanical study offers new assessment of silicon for next-gen batteries September 25th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Nanoscientists develop the 'ultimate discovery tool': Rapid discovery power is similar to what gene chips offer biology June 25th, 2016

Ultrathin, flat lens resolves chirality and color: Multifunctional lens could replace bulky, expensive machines June 25th, 2016

Particle zoo in a quantum computer: First experimental quantum simulation of particle physics phenomena June 23rd, 2016

Titan shines light on high-temperature superconductor pathway: Simulation demonstrates how superconductivity arises in cuprates' pseudogap phase June 22nd, 2016

Possible Futures

Texas A&M Chemist Says Trapped Electrons To Blame For Lack Of Battery Efficiency: Forget mousetraps — today’s scientists will get the cheese if they manage to build a better battery June 28th, 2016

Building a smart cardiac patch: 'Bionic' cardiac patch could one day monitor and respond to cardiac problems June 28th, 2016

New, better way to build circuits for world's first useful quantum computers June 28th, 2016

Yale researchers’ technology turns wasted heat into power June 27th, 2016

Academic/Education

JPK’s NanoWizard® AFM and ForceRobot® systems are being used in the field of medical diagnostics in the Supersensitive Molecular Layer Laboratory of POSTECH in Korea June 21st, 2016

Weizmann Institute of Science Presents: Weizmann Wonder Wander - 4G - is Online June 21st, 2016

NanoLabNL boosts quality of research facilities as Dutch Toekomstfonds invests firmly June 10th, 2016

The Institute for Transfusion Medicine at the University Hospital of Duisburg-Essen in Germany uses the ZetaView from Particle Metrix to quantify extracellular vesicles June 7th, 2016

MEMS

New research unveils graphene 'moth eyes' to power future smart technologies: New ultra-thin, patterned graphene sheets will be essential in designing future technologies such as 'smart wallpaper' and Internet-of-things applications March 1st, 2016

Vesper Collaborates with GLOBALFOUNDRIES to Deliver First Piezoelectric MEMS Microphones: Acoustic sensing company works with top foundry to support mass-market consumer products January 21st, 2016

MEMS & Sensors Industry Group Previews “Internet of MEMS & Sensors” at CES 2016 -- Global industry association invites CE OEMS/integrators to conference track on January 7 January 6th, 2016

SITRI and Accelink Announce Cooperative Agreement on Opto-Electronic Communication December 31st, 2015

Molecular Machines

Rice University's nanosubs gain better fluorescent properties for tracking June 17th, 2016

Little ANTs: Researchers build the world's tiniest engine May 3rd, 2016

Researchers create artificial protein to control assembly of buckyballs April 27th, 2016

Physicists build engine consisting of one atom: World's smallest heat engine uses just a single particle April 17th, 2016

Chip Technology

New, better way to build circuits for world's first useful quantum computers June 28th, 2016

GraphExeter illuminates bright new future for flexible lighting devices June 23rd, 2016

Soft decoupling of organic molecules on metal June 23rd, 2016

Particle zoo in a quantum computer: First experimental quantum simulation of particle physics phenomena June 23rd, 2016

Sensors

Researchers discover new chemical sensing technique: Technique allows sharper detail -- and more information -- with near infrared light June 24th, 2016

Artificial synapse rivals biological ones in energy consumption June 21st, 2016

A new form of hybrid photodetectors with quantum dots and graphene June 19th, 2016

Drum beats from a one atom thick graphite membrane June 15th, 2016

Nanoelectronics

Soft decoupling of organic molecules on metal June 23rd, 2016

Tailored DNA shifts electrons into the 'fast lane': DNA nanowire improved by altering sequences June 22nd, 2016

Scientists engineer tunable DNA for electronics applications June 21st, 2016

Novel energy inside a microcircuit chip: VTT developed an efficient nanomaterial-based integrated energy June 10th, 2016

Announcements

Oxford Instruments and Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory collaborate to develop HTS magnet technology components for high field superconducting magnet systems June 29th, 2016

Texas A&M Chemist Says Trapped Electrons To Blame For Lack Of Battery Efficiency: Forget mousetraps — today’s scientists will get the cheese if they manage to build a better battery June 28th, 2016

Building a smart cardiac patch: 'Bionic' cardiac patch could one day monitor and respond to cardiac problems June 28th, 2016

New, better way to build circuits for world's first useful quantum computers June 28th, 2016

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







Car Brands
Buy website traffic