Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors
Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Laser technique could unlock use of tough material for next-generation electronics: Researchers make graphene tunable, opening up its band gap to a record 2.1 electronvolts

Graphene, a super tough wonder material, hasn't made it into electronics yet because it doesn't conduct an electric current on its own. Researchers used a laser technique to permanently stress graphene into a structure that allows the flow of electric current.

CREDIT
Purdue University image/Gary Cheng
Graphene, a super tough wonder material, hasn't made it into electronics yet because it doesn't conduct an electric current on its own. Researchers used a laser technique to permanently stress graphene into a structure that allows the flow of electric current. CREDIT Purdue University image/Gary Cheng

Abstract:
ABSTRACT

Asymmetric 3D Elastic-Plastic Strain-Modulated Electron Energy Structure in Monolayer Graphene by Laser Shocking

Maithilee Motlag1, Prashant Kumar1, Kevin Y. Hu1, Shengyu Jin1, Ji Li1, Jiayi Shao1, Xuan Yi1, Yen-Hsiang Lin2, Jenna C. Walrath2, Lei Tong3, Xinyu Huang3, Rachel S. Goldman2, Lei Ye3, and Gary J. Cheng1

1Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

2University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

3Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

doi: 10.1002/adma.201900597

Graphene has a great potential to replace silicon in prospective semiconductor industries due to its outstanding electronic and transport properties; nonetheless, its lack of energy bandgap is a substantial limitation for practical applications. To date, straining graphene to break its lattice symmetry is perhaps the most efficient approach toward realizing bandgap tunability in graphene. However, due to the weak lattice deformation induced by uniaxial or in?plane shear strain, most strained graphene studies have yielded bandgaps <1 eV. In this work, a modulated inhomogeneous local asymmetric elastic-plastic straining is reported that utilizes GPa?level laser shocking at a high strain rate (dε/dt) ? 106-107 s?1, with excellent formability, inducing tunable bandgaps in graphene of up to 2.1 eV, as determined by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. High?resolution imaging and Raman spectroscopy reveal strain?induced modifications to the atomic and electronic structure in graphene and first?principles simulations predict the measured bandgap openings. Laser shock modulation of semimetallic graphene to a semiconducting material with controllable bandgap has the potential to benefit the electronic and optoelectronic industries.

Laser technique could unlock use of tough material for next-generation electronics: Researchers make graphene tunable, opening up its band gap to a record 2.1 electronvolts

West Lafayette, IN | Posted on May 30th, 2019

In 2004, researchers discovered a super thin material that is at least a 100 times stronger than steel and the best known conductor of heat and electricity.

This means that the material, graphene, could bring faster electronics than is possible today with silicon.

But to truly be useful, graphene would need to carry an electric current that switches on and off, like what silicon does in the form of billions of transistors on a computer chip. This switching creates strings of 0s and 1s that a computer uses for processing information.

Purdue University researchers, in collaboration with the University of Michigan and the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, show how a laser technique could permanently stress graphene into having a structure that allows the flow of electric current.

This structure is a so-called "band gap." Electrons need to jump across this gap in order to become conduction electrons, which makes them capable of carrying electric current. But graphene doesn't naturally have a band gap.

Purdue researchers created and widened the band gap in graphene to a record 2.1 electronvolts. To function as a semiconductor such as silicon, the band gap would need to be at least the previous record of 0.5 electronvolts.

"This is the first time that an effort has achieved such high band gaps without affecting graphene itself, such as through chemical doping. We have purely strained the material," said Gary Cheng, professor of industrial engineering at Purdue, whose lab has investigated various ways to make graphene more useful for commercial applications.

The presence of a band gap allows semiconductor materials to switch between insulating or conducting an electric current, depending on whether their electrons are pushed across the band gap or not.

Surpassing 0.5 electronvolts unlocks even more potential for graphene in next-generation electronic devices, the researchers say. Their work appears in an issue of Advanced Materials.

"Researchers in the past opened the band gap by simply stretching graphene, but stretching alone doesn't widen the band gap very much. You need to permanently change the shape of graphene to keep the band gap open," Cheng said.

Cheng and his collaborators not only kept the band gap open in graphene, but also made it to where the gap width could be tuned from zero to 2.1 electronvolts, giving scientists and manufacturers the option to just use certain properties of graphene depending on what they want the material to do.

The researchers made the band gap structure permanent in graphene using a technique called laser shock imprinting, which Cheng developed in 2014 along with scientists at Harvard University, the Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies and the University of California, San Diego.

For this study, the researchers used a laser to create shockwave impulses that penetrated an underlying sheet of graphene. The laser shock strains graphene onto a trench-like mold - permanently shaping it. Adjusting the laser power adjusts the band gap.

While still far from putting graphene into semiconducting devices, the technique grants more flexibility in taking advantage of the material's optical, magnetic and thermal properties, Cheng said.

###

The work was supported by multiple entities, including the National Science Foundation (Grant numbers CMMI-0547636 and CMMI 0928752) and the National Research Council Senior Research Associateship.

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Kayla Wiles

765-494-2432

Copyright © Purdue University

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

RELATED JOURNAL ARTICLE"

Related News Press

News and information

The lightest shielding material in the world: Protection against electromagnetic interference July 3rd, 2020

Spintronics: Faster data processing through ultrashort electric pulses July 3rd, 2020

A path to new nanofluidic devices applying spintronics technology: Substantial increase in the energy conversion efficiency of hydrodynamic power generation via spin currents July 3rd, 2020

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics: An international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers July 3rd, 2020

Graphene/ Graphite

Charcoal a weapon to fight superoxide-induced disease, injury: Nanomaterials soak up radicals, could aid treatment of COVID-19 July 2nd, 2020

Researchers discover new boron-lanthanide nanostructure June 25th, 2020

Transparent graphene electrodes might lead to new generation of solar cells: New roll-to-roll production method could enable lightweight, flexible solar devices and a new generation of display screens June 8th, 2020

2 Dimensional Materials

Researchers discover new boron-lanthanide nanostructure June 25th, 2020

Excitons form superfluid in certain 2D combos: Rice University researchers find ‘paradox’ in ground-state bilayers June 15th, 2020

Transparent graphene electrodes might lead to new generation of solar cells: New roll-to-roll production method could enable lightweight, flexible solar devices and a new generation of display screens June 8th, 2020

Magnetism

Researchers discover new boron-lanthanide nanostructure June 25th, 2020

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics: An international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers July 3rd, 2020

Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions July 3rd, 2020

Charcoal a weapon to fight superoxide-induced disease, injury: Nanomaterials soak up radicals, could aid treatment of COVID-19 July 2nd, 2020

The nature of nuclear forces imprinted in photons June 30th, 2020

Possible Futures

Spintronics: Faster data processing through ultrashort electric pulses July 3rd, 2020

A path to new nanofluidic devices applying spintronics technology: Substantial increase in the energy conversion efficiency of hydrodynamic power generation via spin currents July 3rd, 2020

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics: An international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers July 3rd, 2020

Crystal structure discovered almost 200 years ago could hold key to solar cell revolution July 3rd, 2020

Chip Technology

Spintronics: Faster data processing through ultrashort electric pulses July 3rd, 2020

A path to new nanofluidic devices applying spintronics technology: Substantial increase in the energy conversion efficiency of hydrodynamic power generation via spin currents July 3rd, 2020

Extensive review of spin-gapless semiconductors: Next-generation spintronics candidates: spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs) bridge the zero-gap materials and half-metals June 26th, 2020

Process for 'two-faced' nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

Nanoelectronics

Oriented hexagonal boron nitride foster new type of information carrier May 22nd, 2020

A new strategy to create 2D magnetic order April 10th, 2020

Double-walled nanotubes have electro-optical advantages :Rice University calculations show they could be highly useful for solar panels March 27th, 2020

O-FIB: Far-field-induced near-field breakdown for direct nanowriting in an atmospheric environment March 20th, 2020

Discoveries

The lightest shielding material in the world: Protection against electromagnetic interference July 3rd, 2020

Spintronics: Faster data processing through ultrashort electric pulses July 3rd, 2020

A path to new nanofluidic devices applying spintronics technology: Substantial increase in the energy conversion efficiency of hydrodynamic power generation via spin currents July 3rd, 2020

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics: An international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers July 3rd, 2020

Materials/Metamaterials

Cellulose for manufacturing advanced materials: A review of the scientific literature made at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) highlights the potential of hybrid materials based on cellulose nanocrystals June 26th, 2020

Macroscopic quantum interference in an ultra-pure metal June 26th, 2020

Process for 'two-faced' nanomaterials may aid energy, information tech June 26th, 2020

Researchers discover new boron-lanthanide nanostructure June 25th, 2020

Announcements

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics: An international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers July 3rd, 2020

Crystal structure discovered almost 200 years ago could hold key to solar cell revolution July 3rd, 2020

Flexible material shows potential for use in fabrics to heat, cool July 3rd, 2020

Carbon-loving materials designed to reduce industrial emissions July 3rd, 2020

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers/Posters

A path to new nanofluidic devices applying spintronics technology: Substantial increase in the energy conversion efficiency of hydrodynamic power generation via spin currents July 3rd, 2020

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics: An international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers July 3rd, 2020

Crystal structure discovered almost 200 years ago could hold key to solar cell revolution July 3rd, 2020

Flexible material shows potential for use in fabrics to heat, cool July 3rd, 2020

Photonics/Optics/Lasers

Towards lasers powerful enough to investigate a new kind of physics: An international team of researchers has demonstrated an innovative technique for increasing the intensity of lasers July 3rd, 2020

Researchers discover new boron-lanthanide nanostructure June 25th, 2020

A Tremendous Recognition’ Engineer Jonathan Klamkin earns prestigious award from DARPA June 23rd, 2020

Polymers can fine-tune attractions between suspended nanocubes: Interactions between hollow silica nanocubes suspended in a solution can be adjusted by varying the concentration of polymer molecules added to the mixture. June 19th, 2020

Research partnerships

Cellulose for manufacturing advanced materials: A review of the scientific literature made at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) highlights the potential of hybrid materials based on cellulose nanocrystals June 26th, 2020

Argonne researchers create active material out of microscopic spinning particles May 29th, 2020

Surrey reveals its implantable biosensor that operates without batteries May 22nd, 2020

Scientists use light to accelerate supercurrents, access forbidden light, quantum world May 21st, 2020

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project