Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Ribosome Research in Atomic Detail Offers Potential Insights into Cancer, Anemia, Alzheimer’s: New movement during decoding occurs in humans, not in bacteria

The newly discovered rolling movement shown in (A) three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy image of ribosome, and (B) computer-generated atomic-resolution model of the human ribosome consistent with microscopy. A). Arrows indicate the direction of movement during transition between the two different states. B). Ribbons represent backbone of RNA and protein molecules within the ribosome. Color bar indicates the amount of motion during rolling.
The newly discovered rolling movement shown in (A) three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy image of ribosome, and (B) computer-generated atomic-resolution model of the human ribosome consistent with microscopy. A). Arrows indicate the direction of movement during transition between the two different states. B). Ribbons represent backbone of RNA and protein molecules within the ribosome. Color bar indicates the amount of motion during rolling.

Abstract:
A groundbreaking study of the human ribosome is revealing that the tiny molecular machine is more versatile than previously understood. Minor changes in its sequencing can change its operation, allowing it to adapt to a changing environment, as described in a paper published today in Cell.

Ribosome Research in Atomic Detail Offers Potential Insights into Cancer, Anemia, Alzheimer’s: New movement during decoding occurs in humans, not in bacteria

Los Alamos, NM | Posted on July 3rd, 2014

"From a practical standpoint, these first studies of the atomistic mechanism of the human ribosome open a window into a range of diseases, from anemia, to cancer, to Alzheimer's," said researcher Karissa Sanbonmatsu of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new publication shows the first study of decoding the genetic code by human ribosomes in atomic detail.

"Cracking the mechanism of human ribosomes will have applications to a variety of diseases, so we are now seeing the real payoff of over a decade of computer simulations of the ribosome," Sanbonmatsu said.

For more than a decade, Los Alamos has been successfully involved in applying computational approaches for modeling the structure and dynamic aspects of large and biologically important molecular machines such as the ribosome. "The insufficient precision of the developed models often hinders the direct connection of their structural roles to various functions they perform. This problem is solved when connecting the structural modeling to high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy," said Chang-Shung Tung, another Los Alamos researcher on the project.

Tiny protein factories

In general, molecular machines permeate all life forms, including humans. It is within the ribosome, found in all living cells, that proteins are created, making the ribosome one of life's most fundamental machines.

This research shows that the ribosome is highly programmable, where minor changes in its sequence change its operation. These changes allow it to adapt to the changing environment. Specifically, the human ribosome shows subtle differences in overall structure from the bacterial ribosome; yet these changes alter its inner workings, going from a molecular mechanism based on a ‘rocking' motion to a ‘rolling' motion. This is an insight that was unknown until this study was performed.

"The ribosome has a masterful design: a few bit flips of its sequence transform its repertoire of motions, enabling it decode genetic information with even higher fidelity, while adapting to the dramatically different environments presented by human cells," said Sanbonmatsu.

Ribosomes are key to much antibiotic therapy

Ribosomes are the target of 50 percent of antibiotics. To eliminate side effects and improve efficacy, researchers must understand how antibiotics interact with human ribosomes in addition to bacterial ribosomes. In addition, malformed human ribosomes are related to many different human diseases.

In the paper, the team presents subnanometer resolution cryo-electron microscopy maps of the mammalian 80S ribosome, revealing significant differences in the elongation mechanism between bacteria and mammals.

The cryo-electron microscopy was performed by the Christian Spahn Lab @ Charite Medical College, Berlin, Germany The computer modeling was done at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the New Mexico Consortium, supported by the Laboratory's Institutional Computing resources.

The project was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health through LANL and also through the Human Frontiers Science Project through New Mexico Consortium.

####

About Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory, a multidisciplinary research institution engaged in strategic science on behalf of national security, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, a team composed of Bechtel National, the University of California, The Babcock & Wilcox Company, and URS Corporation for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration.

Los Alamos enhances national security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving problems related to energy, environment, infrastructure, health, and global security concerns.

For more information, please click here

Copyright © Los Alamos National Laboratory

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

The paper: Regulation of the mammalian elongation cycle by 40S subunit rolling: A eukaryotic specific ribosome arrangement. Manuscript CELL-D-13-01947R1. Published in Cell, July 3, 2014 (www.cell.com). The collaborating institutions are Charite, Berlin, Germany; Max-Plank Institut fur Molekular Genetic, Berlin, Germany; Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos and the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kiev, Ukraine.

Related News Press

News and information

Switching with molecules: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices May 25th, 2018

Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory: A process similar to guitar tuning improves storage time of quantum memory May 24th, 2018

Remote control of transport through nanopores: New study outlines key factors affecting the transfer of molecules through biological channels May 24th, 2018

2018 Kavli Prizes in Astrophysics, Nanoscience, and Neuroscience to be Announced Live on May 31: Live announcement at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters to be streamed live at World Science Festival Event May 24th, 2018

Imaging

Columbia Researchers Squeeze Light into Nanoscale Devices and Circuits: Team is first to directly image propagation and dynamics of graphene plasmons at very low temperatures; findings could impact optical communications and signal processing May 23rd, 2018

NIST Puts the Optical Microscope Under the Microscope to Achieve Atomic Accuracy May 22nd, 2018

Elastic microspheres expand understanding of embryonic development and cancer cells May 15th, 2018

Nanoscale measurements 100x more precise, thanks to improved two-photon technique May 8th, 2018

Laboratories

NIST Puts the Optical Microscope Under the Microscope to Achieve Atomic Accuracy May 22nd, 2018

Supersonic waves may help electronics beat the heat May 18th, 2018

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory: A process similar to guitar tuning improves storage time of quantum memory May 24th, 2018

Columbia Researchers Squeeze Light into Nanoscale Devices and Circuits: Team is first to directly image propagation and dynamics of graphene plasmons at very low temperatures; findings could impact optical communications and signal processing May 23rd, 2018

NIST Puts the Optical Microscope Under the Microscope to Achieve Atomic Accuracy May 22nd, 2018

Magnesium magnificent for plasmonic applications: Rice University, University of Cambridge synthesize and test nanoparticles of abundant material May 22nd, 2018

Molecular Machines

Biophysics -- lighting up DNA-based nanostructures April 25th, 2018

Tiny nanomachine successfully completes test drive: Researchers at the University of Bonn and the research institute Caesar build a one-wheeled vehicle out of DNA rings April 11th, 2018

Piecework at the nano assembly line: Electric fields drive nano-motors a 100,000 times faster than previous methods January 22nd, 2018

'Gyroscope' molecules form crystal that's both solid and full of motion: New type of molecular machine designed by UCLA researchers could have wide-ranging applications in technology and science January 16th, 2018

Discoveries

Switching with molecules: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices May 25th, 2018

Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory: A process similar to guitar tuning improves storage time of quantum memory May 24th, 2018

Remote control of transport through nanopores: New study outlines key factors affecting the transfer of molecules through biological channels May 24th, 2018

'Spooky action at a distance': Researchers develop module for quantum repeater May 23rd, 2018

Announcements

Switching with molecules: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices May 25th, 2018

Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory: A process similar to guitar tuning improves storage time of quantum memory May 24th, 2018

Remote control of transport through nanopores: New study outlines key factors affecting the transfer of molecules through biological channels May 24th, 2018

2018 Kavli Prizes in Astrophysics, Nanoscience, and Neuroscience to be Announced Live on May 31: Live announcement at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters to be streamed live at World Science Festival Event May 24th, 2018

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

Switching with molecules: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices May 25th, 2018

Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory: A process similar to guitar tuning improves storage time of quantum memory May 24th, 2018

Remote control of transport through nanopores: New study outlines key factors affecting the transfer of molecules through biological channels May 24th, 2018

'Spooky action at a distance': Researchers develop module for quantum repeater May 23rd, 2018

Tools

Columbia Researchers Squeeze Light into Nanoscale Devices and Circuits: Team is first to directly image propagation and dynamics of graphene plasmons at very low temperatures; findings could impact optical communications and signal processing May 23rd, 2018

NIST Puts the Optical Microscope Under the Microscope to Achieve Atomic Accuracy May 22nd, 2018

Self-assembling 3D battery would charge in seconds May 22nd, 2018

A micro-thermometer to record tiny temperature changes May 15th, 2018

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project