Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors
Heifer International



Home > Press > Dental plaque is no match for catalytic nanoparticles: Twice-daily rinses of FDA-approved nanoparticles broke apart oral biofilms and prevented tooth decay in a study led by Penn researchers

Treatment with a nanoparticle and hydrogen peroxide (right panel) left little in the way of bacteria (in blue) or the sticky biofilm matrix (in red), making the combination a potent force against dental plaque.
Treatment with a nanoparticle and hydrogen peroxide (right panel) left little in the way of bacteria (in blue) or the sticky biofilm matrix (in red), making the combination a potent force against dental plaque.

Abstract:
Combine a diet high in sugar with poor oral hygiene habits and dental cavities, or caries, will likely result. The sugar triggers the formation of an acidic biofilm, known as plaque, on the teeth, eroding the surface. Early childhood caries is a severe form of tooth decay that affects one in every four children in the United States and hundreds of millions more globally. It's a particularly severe problem in underprivileged populations.

Dental plaque is no match for catalytic nanoparticles: Twice-daily rinses of FDA-approved nanoparticles broke apart oral biofilms and prevented tooth decay in a study led by Penn researchers

Philadelphia, PA | Posted on August 8th, 2018

In a study published in Nature Communications this week, researchers led by Hyun (Michel) Koo of the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine in collaboration with David Cormode of Penn's Perelman School of Medicine and School of Engineering and Applied Science used FDA-approved nanoparticles to effectively disrupt biofilms and prevent tooth decay in both an experimental human-plaque-like biofilm and in an animal model that mimics early-childhood caries.

The nanoparticles break apart dental plaque through a unique pH-activated antibiofilm mechanism.

"It displays an intriguing enzyme-like property whereby the catalytic activity is dramatically enhanced at acidic pH but is 'switched off' at neutral pH conditions," says Koo, professor in Penn Dental Medicine's Department of Orthodontics and in the divisions of Pediatric Dentistry and Community Oral Health. "The nanoparticles act as a peroxidase, activating hydrogen peroxide, a commonly used antiseptic, to generate free radicals that potently dismantle and kill biofilms in pathological acidic conditions but not at physiological pH, thus providing a targeted effect."

Because the caries-causing plaque is highly acidic, the new therapy is able to precisely target areas of the teeth harboring pathogenic biofilms without harming the surrounding oral tissues or microbiota.

The particular iron-containing nanoparticle used in the experiments, ferumoxytol, is already FDA-approved to treat iron-deficiency, a promising indication that a topical application of the same nanoparticle, used at several-hundred-fold lower concentration, would also be safe for human use.

Though some scientists have questioned whether coatings used on ferumoxytol and other nanoparticles used for medical applications would render them catalytically inert, Koo, Liu, and Cormode demonstrated that they maintained peroxidase-like activity, activating hydrogen peroxide.

After testing the ferumoxytol-hydrogen peroxide combination on a tooth-enamel-like material, the team moved on to an experimental set-up that more closely replicated the conditions of the human mouth.

"We used plaque samples from caries-active subjects to reconstruct these highly pathogenic biofilms on real human tooth enamel," says Koo. "This simulation showed that our treatment not only disrupts the biofilm but also prevents mineral destruction of the tooth's surface. That offered very strong evidence that this could work in vivo."

Further studies in a rodent model that closely mirrors the stages of caries development in humans showed that twice-a-day rinses of ferumoxytol and hydrogen peroxide greatly reduced the severity of caries on all of the surfaces of the teeth and also completely blocked the formation of cavities in the enamel.

As further evidence of the treatment's targeted effect, the researchers found no significant change in the diversity of microbes in the mouth after therapy and found no signs of tissue damage.

"This therapy isn't killing microorganisms indiscriminately," Koo says, "but rather it is acting only where the pathological biofilm develops. Such a precise therapeutic approach can target the diseased sites without disrupting the ecological balance of the oral microbiota, which is critical for a healthy mouth, while also avoiding infection by opportunistic pathogens."

Incorporating nanoparticles in a mouth rinse or toothpaste could be a cost-effective way to significantly improve their effectiveness, says Koo. Many of these products already contain hydrogen peroxide and would only require the addition of a small amount of relatively inexpensive nanoparticles. With evidence backing this approach in both an animal model and a human-like model of tooth decay, the research team is actively working to test its clinical efficacy.

###

Koo was recently awarded the William H. Bowen Research in Dental Caries Award at the International Association for Dental Research in London, one of the highest awards bestowed by the organization, for his consistent and innovative record of developing novel ways to treat caries.

The paper's lead author Yuan Liu, a doctor of science in dentistry student in Koo's lab, was also recognized for this work as one of two winners of the American Association for Dental Research's Hatton Competition Award earlier this year.

In addition to Koo, Liu, and Cormode, coauthors were Geelsu Hwang, Dongyeop Kim, Yue Huang, Aurea Simon-Soro, Hoi-In Jung, Zhi Ren, Yong Li, and Faizan Alawi, all of Penn Dental Medicine; Pratap Naha and Sarah Gubara of Cormode's lab; and Domenick Zero and Anderson Hara of Indiana University's School of Dentistry.

The study was supported in part by the National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research (grants DE025848 and DE018023) and the University of Pennsylvania Research Foundation. Yuan Liu was also the recipient of the Colgate-Palmolive Pediatric Dentistry DScD Fellowship.

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Katherine Unger Baillie

215-898-9194

Copyright © University of Pennsylvania

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

RELATED JOURNAL ARTICLE:

Related News Press

News and information

Wearable sensors that detect gas leaks April 19th, 2021

JEOL USA Welcomes New Managing Director, Hidetaka Sawada April 19th, 2021

FSU engineers improve performance of high-temperature superconductor wires April 16th, 2021

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals to Webcast Fiscal 2021 Second Quarter Results April 16th, 2021

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Better metric for thermoelectric materials means better design strategies: New quantity helps experimentally classify dimensionality of thermoelectric materials April 15th, 2021

Better metric for thermoelectric materials means better design strategies: New quantity helps experimentally classify dimensionality of thermoelectric materials April 15th, 2021

Better solutions for making hydrogen may lie just at the surface April 9th, 2021

Antibody binding-site conserved across COVID-19 virus variants: The structural revelation could have implications as a therapeutic target in all SARS-CoV-2 variants April 9th, 2021

Possible Futures

Wearable sensors that detect gas leaks April 19th, 2021

New nanoscale device for spin technology: Spin waves could unlock the next generation of computer technology, a new component allows physicists to control them April 16th, 2021

New tech builds ultralow-loss integrated photonic circuits April 16th, 2021

Oregon scientists create mechanism to precisely control soundwaves in metamaterials: Theoretical modeling shows that designer materials incorporating drum-like membranes allow precise stoppage and reversal of sound pulses April 16th, 2021

Discoveries

New nanoscale device for spin technology: Spin waves could unlock the next generation of computer technology, a new component allows physicists to control them April 16th, 2021

New tech builds ultralow-loss integrated photonic circuits April 16th, 2021

Oregon scientists create mechanism to precisely control soundwaves in metamaterials: Theoretical modeling shows that designer materials incorporating drum-like membranes allow precise stoppage and reversal of sound pulses April 16th, 2021

FSU engineers improve performance of high-temperature superconductor wires April 16th, 2021

Announcements

Wearable sensors that detect gas leaks April 19th, 2021

JEOL USA Welcomes New Managing Director, Hidetaka Sawada April 19th, 2021

FSU engineers improve performance of high-temperature superconductor wires April 16th, 2021

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals to Webcast Fiscal 2021 Second Quarter Results April 16th, 2021

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers/Posters

Wearable sensors that detect gas leaks April 19th, 2021

New nanoscale device for spin technology: Spin waves could unlock the next generation of computer technology, a new component allows physicists to control them April 16th, 2021

New tech builds ultralow-loss integrated photonic circuits April 16th, 2021

Oregon scientists create mechanism to precisely control soundwaves in metamaterials: Theoretical modeling shows that designer materials incorporating drum-like membranes allow precise stoppage and reversal of sound pulses April 16th, 2021

Research partnerships

TPU scientists offer new plasmon energy-based method to remove CO2 from atmosphere March 19th, 2021

Quantum quirk yields giant magnetic effect, where none should exist: Study opens window into the landscape of extreme topological matter March 1st, 2021

Researchers improve efficiency of next-generation solar cell material: Reducing internal losses could pave the way to low-cost perovskite-based photovoltaics that match silicon cellsí output February 26th, 2021

CEA-Leti & Dolphin Design Report FD-SOI Breakthrough that Boosts Operating Frequency by 450% and Reduces Power Consumption by 30%: Joint Paper Presented at ISSCC 2021 Shows How New Adaptive Back-Biasing Technique Overcomes Integration Limits in Chip Design Flows February 23rd, 2021

Dental

Innovations in dentistry: Navigational surgery, robotics, and nanotechnology October 2nd, 2020

First measurement of electron energy distributions, could enable sustainable energy technologies June 5th, 2020

Gas storage method could help next-generation clean energy vehicles: Tremendous amounts of hydrogen and methane can be stored in nanoscopic pores April 17th, 2020

Novel nanoparticle-based approach detects and treats oral plaque without drugs August 17th, 2018

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project