Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors





Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Structural Insights into the Inner Workings of a Viral Nanomachine

Captured rotavirus double-layered particles (DLPs) in the midst of producing RNA. The schematic represents an EM Affinity Grid (gray square) coated with adaptor molecules (red and dark blue) that anchor active rotavirus DLPs (yellow) to the Affi nity Grid. Cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM) image of actively transcribing DLPs re-veals RNA strands (gray strands) emerging from the virus capsid. Three-dimensional image reconstructions of DLPs (light blue) that actively produce RNA reveal strong density within the viral core. Diameter of each reconstruction is ~80 nm.Credit: Deborah F. Kelly, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech.
Captured rotavirus double-layered particles (DLPs) in the midst of producing RNA. The schematic represents an EM Affinity Grid (gray square) coated with adaptor molecules (red and dark blue) that anchor active rotavirus DLPs (yellow) to the Affi nity Grid. Cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM) image of actively transcribing DLPs re-veals RNA strands (gray strands) emerging from the virus capsid. Three-dimensional image reconstructions of DLPs (light blue) that actively produce RNA reveal strong density within the viral core. Diameter of each reconstruction is ~80 nm.

Credit: Deborah F. Kelly, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech.

Abstract:
Researchers at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute (VTCRI) are using new nanoscale imaging approaches to shed light on the dynamic activities of rotaviruses, important pathogens that cause life-threatening diarrhea in young children. Once a rotavirus enters a host cell, it sheds its outermost protein layer, leaving behind a double-layered particle (DLP). These DLPs are the form of the virus that produces messenger RNA molecules, which are critical for launching the infection.

Structural Insights into the Inner Workings of a Viral Nanomachine

Singapore | Posted on April 3rd, 2014

Researchers, Deborah Kelly, Ph.D. and Sarah McDonald, Ph.D., both Assistant Professors at VTCRI, acquired molecular snapshots of rotavirus DLPs, in the midst of producing viral RNA, using cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM). Th e team performing the work also included third year medical students, Joanna Kam and Andrew Demmert, of the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, and post-doctoral fellow, Justin Tanner, Ph.D.

To get the best possible view of the nanoscale details of active rotavirus DLPs, Kelly developed a technique that permitted visualization of changes in the outermost shell. In conjunction with novel computational approaches, the scientists were also able to detect the internal features of the DLPs, which had not been previously observed. Interestingly, the internal DLP features changed in a manner that corresponded to observable diff erences in levels of viral messenger RNA pro-duction.

These findings provide new structural insights into the mechanics of rotavirus RNA synthesis, which may in turn provide information about how this viral process takes place upon host cell infection. The results appear in the latest edition of the journal TECHNOLOGY.

"What's remarkable about this study is that we were able to see diff erent levels of complexity inside the DLPs that correlated with viral RNA synthesis," said Kelly. "When viruses were ac-tive, their external structures moved dynamically, in a way that became less organized. While at the same time, strong features within their internal cores become more prominent."

A key innovative approach used by the Kelly laboratory has provided a chance to view a wider spectrum of viral structures. By examining the DLPs attached to antibodies on a stable grid sur-face, researchers were able to view the nanomachines cycling through their natural processes.

Kelly and McDonald also used a new computer algorithm to categorize the DLPs, independently, which avoided user-bias in the experimental calculations. The statistical-based computational ap-proach classified the samples based on levels of RNA production. The results clearly showed that rotavirus DLPs with a less organized outer protein layer had more solid details in their internal cores. These DLPs were also found in the cryo-EM images to be near more RNA strands.

"For many years scientists have been concerned with higher-resolution results and have not paid close attention to the subtle diversity that exists in virus samples," said McDonald, who is also an Assistant Professor of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. "But that diversity may be indicative of how viruses actually function inside cells. They are not static, but dynamic in nature."

"It's a little counterintuitive," said Kelly, who is also an Assistant Professor of Biological Sci-ences in Virginia Tech's College of Sciences. "You would imagine that, if biological parts were moving around, then features would dissipate. When these rearrangements occur in such a con-fined space, however, it may potentially lead to a higher level of organization. And the coordi-nated changes on the outside of viruses seem to enable these processes."

According to Kelly, these results give new insight into the RNA synthetic processes of rotavirus and may prove useful in our understanding of viral biology in general. Improving our understand-ing of the inner workings of rotavirus, she added, might also provide new targets for the devel-opment of treatments for viral-induced diarrheal diseases.

Corresponding authors for this study in TECHNOLOGY are Deborah F. Kelly, and Sarah McDonald,

####

About World Scientific
World Scientific Publishing is a leading independent publisher of books and journals for the scholarly, research and professional communities. The company publishes about 500 books annually and more than 120 journals in various fields. World Scientific collaborates with prestigious organisations like the Nobel Foundation, US National Academies Press, as well as its subsidiary, the Imperial College Press, amongst others, to bring high quality academic and professional content to researchers and academics worldwide.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Chew Munkit

656-466-5775

Copyright © World Scientific

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

Transparent, electrically conductive network of encapsulated silver nanowires: A novel electrode for optoelectronics August 1st, 2015

Harris & Harris Group Portfolio Company, HZO, Announces Partnerships with Dell and Motorola August 1st, 2015

Advances and Applications in Biosensing, Sensor Power, and Sensor R&D to be Covered at Sensors Global Summit August 1st, 2015

Kalam: versatility personified August 1st, 2015

Molecular Machines

Injectable electronics: New system holds promise for basic neuroscience, treatment of neuro-degenerative diseases June 8th, 2015

One step closer to a single-molecule device: Columbia Engineering researchers first to create a single-molecule diode -- the ultimate in miniaturization for electronic devices -- with potential for real-world applications May 25th, 2015

UCLA nanoscientists are first to model atomic structures of three bacterial nanomachines: Cryo electron microscope enables scientists to explore the frontiers of targeted antibiotics April 21st, 2015

Advances in molecular electronics: Lights on -- molecule on: Researchers from Dresden and Konstanz succeed in light-controlled molecule switching April 20th, 2015

Nanomedicine

Gold-diamond nanodevice for hyperlocalised cancer therapy: Gold nanorods can be used as remote controlled nanoheaters delivering the right amount of thermal treatment to cancer cells, thanks to diamond nanocrystals used as temperature sensors August 1st, 2015

Heating and cooling with light leads to ultrafast DNA diagnostics July 31st, 2015

Take a trip through the brain July 30th, 2015

Sol-gel capacitor dielectric offers record-high energy storage July 30th, 2015

Discoveries

Gold-diamond nanodevice for hyperlocalised cancer therapy: Gold nanorods can be used as remote controlled nanoheaters delivering the right amount of thermal treatment to cancer cells, thanks to diamond nanocrystals used as temperature sensors August 1st, 2015

Shaping the hilly landscapes of a semi-conductor nanoworld August 1st, 2015

Solid state physics: Quantum matter stuck in unrest August 1st, 2015

Self-assembling, biomimetic membranes may aid water filtration August 1st, 2015

Announcements

Self-assembling, biomimetic membranes may aid water filtration August 1st, 2015

Transparent, electrically conductive network of encapsulated silver nanowires: A novel electrode for optoelectronics August 1st, 2015

Harris & Harris Group Portfolio Company, HZO, Announces Partnerships with Dell and Motorola August 1st, 2015

Advances and Applications in Biosensing, Sensor Power, and Sensor R&D to be Covered at Sensors Global Summit August 1st, 2015

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

Gold-diamond nanodevice for hyperlocalised cancer therapy: Gold nanorods can be used as remote controlled nanoheaters delivering the right amount of thermal treatment to cancer cells, thanks to diamond nanocrystals used as temperature sensors August 1st, 2015

Shaping the hilly landscapes of a semi-conductor nanoworld August 1st, 2015

Solid state physics: Quantum matter stuck in unrest August 1st, 2015

Self-assembling, biomimetic membranes may aid water filtration August 1st, 2015

Nanobiotechnology

Heating and cooling with light leads to ultrafast DNA diagnostics July 31st, 2015

European Technology Platform for Nanomedicine and ENATRANS European Consortium Launch the 2nd edition of the Nanomedicine Award: The Award to be presented at BIO-Europe conference in Munich, November 2015 July 30th, 2015

New computer model could explain how simple molecules took first step toward life: Two Brookhaven researchers developed theoretical model to explain the origins of self-replicating molecules July 28th, 2015

Spintronics: Molecules stabilizing magnetism: Organic molecules fixing the magnetic orientation of a cobalt surface/ building block for a compact and low-cost storage technology/ publication in Nature Materials July 25th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project