Nanotechnology Now





Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Researchers discover evidence to support controversial theory of 'buckyball' formation: Discovery could have a bearing on medical imaging, cancer treatment

Harry Dorn, a professor at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, poses with models of "buckyballs." His research supports the theory that a soccer ball-shaped nanoparticle commonly called a buckyball is the result of a breakdown of larger structures rather than being built atom-by-atom from the ground up.

Credit: Virginia Tech
Harry Dorn, a professor at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, poses with models of "buckyballs." His research supports the theory that a soccer ball-shaped nanoparticle commonly called a buckyball is the result of a breakdown of larger structures rather than being built atom-by-atom from the ground up.

Credit: Virginia Tech

Abstract:
Researchers at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute have reported the first experimental evidence that supports the theory that a soccer ball-shaped nanoparticle commonly called a buckyball is the result of a breakdown of larger structures rather than being built atom-by-atom from the ground up.

Researchers discover evidence to support controversial theory of 'buckyball' formation: Discovery could have a bearing on medical imaging, cancer treatment

Blacksburg, VA | Posted on September 16th, 2013

Technically known as fullerenes, these spherical carbon molecules have shown great promise for uses in medicine, solar energy, and optoelectronics. But finding applications for these peculiar structures has been difficult because no one knows exactly how they are formed.

Two theories compete regarding the molecular mechanisms that make fullerenes. The first and oldest is the "bottom-up" theory, which says these carbon cages are built atom-by-atom, like the construction of a Lego model. The second, more recent, theory takes a "top-down" approach, suggesting that fullerenes form when much larger structures break into constituent parts.

After several years of debate with little more than computational models in support of how the top-down theory might work, researchers led by Harry Dorn, a professor at the research institute, have discovered the missing link: asymmetrical fullerenes that are formed from larger structures appear to settle into stable fullerenes.

The discovery appeared online Sept. 15 in the journal Nature Chemistry.

"Understanding the molecular mechanics of how fullerenes and their many variations are formed is not just a curiosity," said Dorn, who has been researching metallofullerenes - fullerenes with a few atoms of metal held within - for more than two decades. "It would give us insights into new, better ways to prepare them. Fullerenes and metallofullerenes are already involved in hundreds of biomedical studies. The ability to create large numbers of a wide variety of metallofullerenes would be a giant building block that would take the field to new heights."

The medicinal promise of metallofullerenes stems from the atoms of metal caged within them. Because the metal atoms are trapped in a cage of carbon, they do not react with the outside world, making their side-effect risks low in both number and intensity.

For example, one particular metallofullerene with gadolinium at its core has been shown to be up to 40 times better as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging scans for diagnostic imaging than options now commercially available. Current experiments are also directed at using metallofullerenes to carry therapeutic radioactive ions to target cancer tissue.

"A better understanding of the formation of fullerenes and metallofullerenes may allow the development of new contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging at commercial-level quantities," said Jianyuan Zhang, a graduate student in Dorn's laboratory and the first author of the paper. "These larger quantities will facilitate a next generation of contrast agents with multiple targets."

Dorn's new study hinges on the isolation and purification of approximately 100 micrograms — roughly the size of several specks of pepper — of a particular metallofullerene consisting of 84 carbon atoms with two additional carbon atoms and two yttrium atoms trapped inside.

When Dorn and his colleagues determined the metallofullerene's exact structure using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and single crystal X-ray analysis, they made a startling discovery —the asymmetrical molecule could theoretically collapse to form nearly every known fullerene and metallofullerene.

All the process would require would be a few minor perturbations — the breaking of only a few molecular bonds — and the cage would become highly symmetrical and stable.

This insight, Dorn said, supports the theory that fullerenes are formed from graphene — a single sheet of carbon just one atom thick — when key molecular bonds begin to break down. And although the study focuses on fullerenes with yttrium trapped inside, it also shows that the carbon distribution looks similar for empty cages, suggesting regular fullerenes form the same way.

"Not only are the findings presented in Dr. Dorn's paper extremely interesting, but the study represents a real milestone in the field," said Takeshi Akasaka, a professor of chemistry at the University of Tsukuba in Japan and an authority in the field of metallofullerene research, who was not involved in the study. "The study presents physical evidence for a process of metallofullerene creation that most scientists in the field initially scoffed at."

Dorn said scientists have questioned the bottom-up theory of fullerene formation ever since it was discovered that fullerenes were formed from asteroids colliding with Earth and fullerenes were found in interstellar space.

"With this study, we hope to be that much closer to understanding their formation and creating entirely new classes of fullerenes and metallofullerenes that could be useful in medicine as well as in other fields that haven't even occurred to us yet," Dorn said.

"Dr. Dorn's insight into the fundamental process whereby fullerenes are formed is a major contribution to the field," said Michael Friedlander, executive director of the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute. "Understanding the molecular steps in their formation is key to realizing fully the potential of this versatile and potentially potent family of chemicals in medicine. Dr. Dorn's contributions to understanding these molecules are paving the way for the formulation of targeted novel diagnostics, therapeutics, and the combination of both—theranostics. This approach will provide an important component for tomorrow's arsenal of precision medicine."

Dorn and Zhang's research collaborators include Faye Bowles, a graduate student researcher; Marilyn Olmstead, a professor of chemistry; and Alan Balch, a distinguished professor of chemistry; all from the University of California, Davis.

Also participating were Daniel Bearden, a research scientist with the Hollings Marine Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Tim Fuhrer, now an assistant professor of chemistry at Radford University.

Researchers from Virginia Tech who worked on the study include Richard Helm, an associate professor of biochemistry; W. Keith Ray, a senior research associate in biochemistry; Youqing Ye, a graduate student in chemistry; Caitlyn Dixon, an undergraduate student in chemistry; and Kim Harich, an analytical chemist senior in biochemistry.

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Paula Byron

540-526-2027

Copyright © Virginia Tech

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

Transition from 3 to 2 dimensions increases conduction, MIPT scientists discover July 6th, 2015

A Stretchy Mesh Heater for Sore Muscles July 6th, 2015

BBC World Service to broadcast Forum discussion on graphene July 6th, 2015

Production of Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles at Low Temperature without Thermal Operations July 5th, 2015

Laboratories

Influential Interfaces Lead to Advances in Organic Spintronics July 1st, 2015

NIST ‘How-To’ Website Documents Procedures for Nano-EHS Research and Testing July 1st, 2015

Ultra-stable JILA microscopy technique tracks tiny objects for hours July 1st, 2015

X-rays and electrons join forces to map catalytic reactions in real-time: New technique combines electron microscopy and synchrotron X-rays to track chemical reactions under real operating conditions June 29th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

New technology using silver may hold key to electronics advances July 2nd, 2015

NIST Group Maps Distribution of Carbon Nanotubes in Composite Materials July 2nd, 2015

NIST ‘How-To’ Website Documents Procedures for Nano-EHS Research and Testing July 1st, 2015

Ultra-stable JILA microscopy technique tracks tiny objects for hours July 1st, 2015

Nanotubes/Buckyballs/Fullerenes

A Stretchy Mesh Heater for Sore Muscles July 6th, 2015

Discovery of nanotubes offers new clues about cell-to-cell communication July 2nd, 2015

NIST Group Maps Distribution of Carbon Nanotubes in Composite Materials July 2nd, 2015

NIST ‘How-To’ Website Documents Procedures for Nano-EHS Research and Testing July 1st, 2015

Nanomedicine

A Stretchy Mesh Heater for Sore Muscles July 6th, 2015

New Biosensor Produced in Iran to Detect Effective Drugs in Cancer Treatment July 4th, 2015

Groundbreaking research to help control liquids at micro and nano scales July 3rd, 2015

Iranian Scientists Find Simple, Economic Method to Synthesize Antibacterial Nanoparticles July 2nd, 2015

Optical computing/ Photonic computing

Opening a new route to photonics Berkeley lab researchers find way to control light in densely packed nanowaveguides June 27th, 2015

Iranian Researchers Model, Design Optical Switches June 13th, 2015

Rice researchers make ultrasensitive conductivity measurements: Photonic platform could provide 'optical signatures' for molecular electronics June 10th, 2015

Investigation of Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Presence of Magnetic, Electrical Fields June 10th, 2015

Discoveries

Transition from 3 to 2 dimensions increases conduction, MIPT scientists discover July 6th, 2015

A Stretchy Mesh Heater for Sore Muscles July 6th, 2015

Production of Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles at Low Temperature without Thermal Operations July 5th, 2015

A 'movie' of ultrafast rotating molecules at a hundred billion per second: A quantum wave-like nature was successfully observed in rotating nitrogen molecules July 4th, 2015

Materials/Metamaterials

BBC World Service to broadcast Forum discussion on graphene July 6th, 2015

Production of Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles at Low Temperature without Thermal Operations July 5th, 2015

Pioneering Southampton scientist awarded prestigious physics medal July 3rd, 2015

New technology using silver may hold key to electronics advances July 2nd, 2015

Announcements

Transition from 3 to 2 dimensions increases conduction, MIPT scientists discover July 6th, 2015

A Stretchy Mesh Heater for Sore Muscles July 6th, 2015

BBC World Service to broadcast Forum discussion on graphene July 6th, 2015

Production of Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles at Low Temperature without Thermal Operations July 5th, 2015

Energy

New technology using silver may hold key to electronics advances July 2nd, 2015

Visible Light-Sensitive Photocatalysts Used for Purification of Contaminated Water in Iran June 30th, 2015

June 29th, 2015

Making new materials with micro-explosions: ANU media release: Scientists have made exotic new materials by creating laser-induced micro-explosions in silicon, the common computer chip material June 29th, 2015

Photonics/Optics/Lasers

Pioneering Southampton scientist awarded prestigious physics medal July 3rd, 2015

Making new materials with micro-explosions: ANU media release: Scientists have made exotic new materials by creating laser-induced micro-explosions in silicon, the common computer chip material June 29th, 2015

Opening a new route to photonics Berkeley lab researchers find way to control light in densely packed nanowaveguides June 27th, 2015

The quantum spin Hall effect is a fundamental property of light June 25th, 2015

Research partnerships

Groundbreaking research to help control liquids at micro and nano scales July 3rd, 2015

Producing spin-entangled electrons July 2nd, 2015

Harris & Harris Group Portfolio Company, AgBiome, Announces Partnership to Accelerate the Discovery of Next Generation Insect-Resistant Crops July 1st, 2015

Leti Announces Launch of First European Nanomedicine Characterisation Laboratory: Project Combines Expertise of 9 Partners in 8 Countries to Foster Nanomedicine Innovation and Facilitate Regulatory Approval July 1st, 2015

Solar/Photovoltaic

Making new materials with micro-explosions: ANU media release: Scientists have made exotic new materials by creating laser-induced micro-explosions in silicon, the common computer chip material June 29th, 2015

Spain nanotechnology featured at NANO KOREA 2015 June 26th, 2015

Stanford researchers stretch a thin crystal to get better solar cells June 25th, 2015

Toward tiny, solar-powered sensors: New ultralow-power circuit improves efficiency of energy harvesting to more than 80 percent June 23rd, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project