Nanotechnology Now







Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > One and done: Single-atom transistor is end of Moore's Law; may be beginning of quantum computing

A controllable transistor engineered from a single phosphorus atom has been developed by researchers at the University of New South Wales, Purdue University and the University of Melbourne. The atom, shown here in the center of an image from a computer model, sits in a channel in a silicon crystal. The atomic-sized transistor and wires might allow researchers to control gated qubits of information in future quantum computers. (Purdue University image)
A controllable transistor engineered from a single phosphorus atom has been developed by researchers at the University of New South Wales, Purdue University and the University of Melbourne. The atom, shown here in the center of an image from a computer model, sits in a channel in a silicon crystal. The atomic-sized transistor and wires might allow researchers to control gated qubits of information in future quantum computers.

(Purdue University image)

Abstract:


Abstract

A Single-Atom Transistor

Martin Fuechsle, Jill A. Miwa, Suddhasatta Mahapatra, Oliver Warschkow, Michelle, Y. Simmons, Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Hoon Ryu, Sunhee Lee, Gerhard Klimeck, Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind.

Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg, Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia

The ability to control matter at the atomic scale and build devices with atomic precision is central to nanotechnology. The scanning tunneling microscope can manipulate individual atoms and molecules on surfaces, but the manipulation of silicon to make atomic-scale logic circuits has been hampered by the covalent nature of its bonds. Resist-based strategies have allowed the formation of atomic-scale structures on silicon surfaces, but the fabrication of working devices - such as transistors with extremely short gate lengths, spin-based quantum computers and solitary dopant opteolectronic devices - requires the ability to position individual atoms in a silicon crystal with atomic precision. Here we use a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy and hydrogen-resist lithography to demonstrate a single-atom transistor in which an individual phosphorus dopant atom has been deterministically placed within an epitaxial silicon device architecture with a spatial accuracy of one lattice site. The transistor operates at liquid helium temperatures, and millikelvin electron transport measurements confirm the presence of discrete quantum levels in the energy spectrum of the phosphorus atom, with a charging energy that is close to the bulk value. Previously, this has only been observed by optical spectroscopy.

One and done: Single-atom transistor is end of Moore's Law; may be beginning of quantum computing

West Lafayette, IN | Posted on February 19th, 2012

The smallest transistor ever built - in fact, the smallest transistor that can be built - has been created using a single phosphorous atom by an international team of researchers at the University of New South Wales, Purdue University and the University of Melbourne.

The single-atom device was described Sunday (Feb. 19) in a paper in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Michelle Simmons, group leader and director of the ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication at the University of New South Wales, says the development is less about improving current technology than building future tech.

"This is a beautiful demonstration of controlling matter at the atomic scale to make a real device," Simmons says. "Fifty years ago when the first transistor was developed, no one could have predicted the role that computers would play in our society today. As we transition to atomic-scale devices, we are now entering a new paradigm where quantum mechanics promises a similar technological disruption. It is the promise of this future technology that makes this present development so exciting."

The same research team announced in January that it had developed a wire of phosphorus and silicon - just one atom tall and four atoms wide - that behaved like copper wire.

Simulations of the atomic transistor to model its behavior were conducted at Purdue using nanoHUB technology, an online community resource site for researchers in computational nanotechnology.

Gerhard Klimeck, who directed the Purdue group that ran the simulations, says this is an important development because it shows how small electronic components can be engineered.

"To me, this is the physical limit of Moore's Law," Klimeck says. "We can't make it smaller than this."

Although definitions can vary, simply stated Moore's Law holds that the number of transistors that can be placed on a processor will double approximately every 18 months. The latest Intel chip, the "Sandy Bridge," uses a manufacturing process to place 2.3 billion transistors 32 nanometers apart. A single phosphorus atom, by comparison, is just 0.1 nanometers across, which would significantly reduce the size of processors made using this technique, although it may be many years before single-atom processors actually are manufactured.

The single-atom transistor does have one serious limitation: It must be kept very cold, at least as cold as liquid nitrogen, or minus 391 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 196 Celsius).

"The atom sits in a well or channel, and for it to operate as a transistor the electrons must stay in that channel," Klimeck says. "At higher temperatures, the electrons move more and go outside of the channel. For this atom to act like a metal you have to contain the electrons to the channel.

"If someone develops a technique to contain the electrons, this technique could be used to build a computer that would work at room temperature. But this is a fundamental question for this technology."

Although single atoms serving as transistors have been observed before, this is the first time a single-atom transistor has been controllably engineered with atomic precision. The structure even has markers that allow researchers to attach contacts and apply a voltage, says Martin Fuechsle, a researcher at the University of New South Wales and lead author on the journal paper.

"The thing that is unique about what we have done is that we have, with atomic precision, positioned this individual atom within our device," Fuechsle says.

Simmons says this control is the key step in making a single-atom device. "By achieving the placement of a single atom, we have, at the same time, developed a technique that will allow us to be able to place several of these single-atom devices towards the goal of a developing a scalable system."

The single-atom transistor could lead the way to building a quantum computer that works by controlling the electrons and thereby the quantum information, or qubits. Some scientists, however, have doubts that such a device can ever be built.

"Whilst this result is a major milestone in scalable silicon quantum computing, it does not answer the question of whether quantum computing is possible or not," Simmons says. "The answer to this lies in whether quantum coherence can be controlled over large numbers of qubits. The technique we have developed is potentially scalable, using the same materials as the silicon industry, but more time is needed to realize this goal."

Klimeck says despite the hurdles, the single-atom transistor is an important development.

"This opens eyes because it is a device that behaves like metal in silicon. This will lead to many more discoveries."

The research project spanned the globe and was the result of many years of effort.

"When I established this program 10 years ago, many people thought it was impossible with too many technical hurdles. However, on reading into the literature I could not see any practical reason why it would not be possible," Simmons says. "Brute determination and systemic studies were necessary - as well as having many outstanding students and postdoctoral researchers who have worked on the project."

Klimeck notes that modern collaboration and community-building tools such as nanoHUB played an important role.

"This was a trans-Pacific collaboration that came about through the community created in nanoHUB. Now Purdue graduate students spend time studying at the University of New South Wales, and their students travel to Purdue to learn more about nanotechnology. It has been a rewarding collaboration, both for the scientific discoveries and for the personal relationships that were formed."

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Writer:
Steve Tally
765-494-9809

Twitter: sciencewriter

Sources:
Michelle Simmons
0425 336 756


Gerhard Klimeck
765-494-9212


University of New South Wales media contact:
Mary O'Malley
0438 881 124

Copyright © Purdue University

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

nanoHUB:

Down to the wire for silicon: Researchers create a wire 4 atoms wide, 1 atom tall:

University of New South Wales Centre for Quantum Computation & Communication Technology:

Related News Press

News and information

A first glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state March 28th, 2015

DFG to Establish One Clinical Research Unit and Five Research Units: New Projects to Investigate Complications in Pregnancy, Particle Physics, Nanoparticles, Implants and Transport Planning / Approximately 13 Million Euros in Funding for an Initial Three-Year Period March 28th, 2015

Chemists make new silicon-based nanomaterials March 27th, 2015

UT Dallas engineers twist nanofibers to create structures tougher than bulletproof vests March 27th, 2015

State-of-the-art online system unveiled to pinpoint metrology software accuracy March 27th, 2015

Videos/Movies

Novel nanoparticle therapy promotes wound healing March 27th, 2015

Carbon nanotube fibers make superior links to brain: Rice University invention provides two-way communication with neurons March 25th, 2015

ASIC Development for MEMS Applications: A Platform Approach March 25th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

UT Dallas engineers twist nanofibers to create structures tougher than bulletproof vests March 27th, 2015

Novel nanoparticle therapy promotes wound healing March 27th, 2015

Designer's toolkit for dynamic DNA nanomachines: Arm-waving nanorobot signals new flexibility in DNA origami March 27th, 2015

Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity: Los Alamos explores experimental path to potential 'next theory of superconductivity' March 27th, 2015

Chip Technology

State-of-the-art online system unveiled to pinpoint metrology software accuracy March 27th, 2015

SUNY POLY CNSE to Host First Ever Northeast Semi Supply Conference (NESCO) Conference Will Connect New and Emerging Innovators in the Northeastern US and Canada with Industry Leaders and Strategic Investors to Discuss Future Growth Opportunities in NYS March 25th, 2015

NXP and GLOBALFOUNDRIES Announce Production of 40nm Embedded Non-Volatile Memory Technology: Co-developed technology to leverage GLOBALFOUNDRIES 40nm process technology platform March 24th, 2015

Building shape inspires new material discovery March 24th, 2015

Quantum Computing

A first glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state March 28th, 2015

Quantum compute this -- WSU mathematicians build code to take on toughest of cyber attacks: Revamped knapsack code offers online security for the future March 26th, 2015

Building shape inspires new material discovery March 24th, 2015

Quantum cause and effect March 23rd, 2015

Nanoelectronics

SUNY POLY CNSE to Host First Ever Northeast Semi Supply Conference (NESCO) Conference Will Connect New and Emerging Innovators in the Northeastern US and Canada with Industry Leaders and Strategic Investors to Discuss Future Growth Opportunities in NYS March 25th, 2015

UW scientists build a nanolaser using a single atomic sheet March 24th, 2015

Iranian Researchers Present Model to Determine Dynamic Behavior of Nanostructures March 24th, 2015

Sharper nanoscopy: What happens when a quantum dot looks in a mirror? March 19th, 2015

Discoveries

A first glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state March 28th, 2015

UT Dallas engineers twist nanofibers to create structures tougher than bulletproof vests March 27th, 2015

Novel nanoparticle therapy promotes wound healing March 27th, 2015

Designer's toolkit for dynamic DNA nanomachines: Arm-waving nanorobot signals new flexibility in DNA origami March 27th, 2015

Announcements

A first glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state March 28th, 2015

DFG to Establish One Clinical Research Unit and Five Research Units: New Projects to Investigate Complications in Pregnancy, Particle Physics, Nanoparticles, Implants and Transport Planning / Approximately 13 Million Euros in Funding for an Initial Three-Year Period March 28th, 2015

Designer's toolkit for dynamic DNA nanomachines: Arm-waving nanorobot signals new flexibility in DNA origami March 27th, 2015

Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity: Los Alamos explores experimental path to potential 'next theory of superconductivity' March 27th, 2015

Research partnerships

SUNY Poly & M+W Make Major Announcement: Major Expansion To Include M+W Owned Gehrlicher Solar America Corporation That Will Create up to 400 Jobs to Develop Solar Power Plants at SUNY Poly Sites Across New York State March 26th, 2015

ORNL-led team demonstrates desalination with nanoporous graphene membrane March 25th, 2015

New kind of 'tandem' solar cell developed: Researchers combine 2 types of photovoltaic material to make a cell that harnesses more sunlight March 24th, 2015

UW scientists build a nanolaser using a single atomic sheet March 24th, 2015

Quantum nanoscience

Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity: Los Alamos explores experimental path to potential 'next theory of superconductivity' March 27th, 2015

Thousands of atoms entangled with a single photon: Result could make atomic clocks more accurate March 26th, 2015

Bar-Ilan U. researchers identify 'tipping point' between quantum and classical worlds: Study sheds new light on 'spooky' quantum optics March 24th, 2015

Nanospheres cooled with light to explore the limits of quantum physics March 17th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2015 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE