Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors


Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Nano-sized light mill drives micro-sized disk

This STM image shows a gammadion gold light mill nanomotor embedded in a silica microdisk. Inset is a magnified top view of the light mill.
This STM image shows a gammadion gold light mill nanomotor embedded in a silica microdisk. Inset is a magnified top view of the light mill.

Abstract:
While those wonderful light sabers in the Star Wars films remain the figment of George Lucas' fertile imagination, light mills - rotary motors driven by light - that can power objects thousands of times greater in size are now fact.

Nano-sized light mill drives micro-sized disk

Berkeley, CA | Posted on July 5th, 2010

Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California (UC) Berkeley have created the first nano-sized light mill motor whose rotational speed and direction can be controlled by tuning the frequency of the incident light waves. It may not help conquer the Dark Side, but this new light mill does open the door to a broad range of valuable applications, including a new generation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanoscale solar light harvesters, and bots that can perform in vivo manipulations of DNA and other biological molecules.

"We have demonstrated a plasmonic motor only 100 nanometers in size that when illuminated with linearly polarized light can generate a torque sufficient to drive a micrometre-sized silica disk 4,000 times larger in volume," says Xiang Zhang, a principal investigator with Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and director of UC Berkeley's Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center (SINAM), who led this research. "In addition to easily being able to control the rotational speed and direction of this motor, we can create coherent arrays of such motors, which results in greater torque and faster rotation of the microdisk."

The success of this new light mill stems from the fact that the force exerted on matter by light can be enhanced in a metallic nanostructure when the frequencies of the incident light waves are resonant with the metal's plasmons - surface waves that roll through a metal's conduction electrons. Zhang and his colleagues fashioned a gammadion-shaped light mill type of nanomotor out of gold that was structurally designed to maximize the interactions between light and matter. The metamaterial-style structure also induced orbital angular momentum on the light that in turn imposed a torque on the nanomotor.

"The planar gammadion gold structures can be viewed as a combination of four small LC-circuits for which the resonant frequencies are determined by the geometry and dielectric properties of the metal," says Zhang. "The imposed torque results solely from the gammadion structure's symmetry and interaction with all incident light, including light which doesn't carry angular momentum. Essentially we use design to encode angular momentum in the structure itself. Since the angular momentum of the light need not be pre-determined, the illuminating source can be a simple linearly polarized plane-wave or Gaussian beam."

The results of this research are reported in the journal Nature Nanotechnology in a paper titled, " Light-driven nanoscale plasmonic motors." Co-authoring the paper with Zhang were Ming Liu, Thomas Zentgraf, Yongmin Liu and Guy Bartal.

It has long been known that the photons in a beam of light carry both linear and angular momentum that can be transferred to a material object. Optical tweezers and traps, for example, are based on the direct transfer of linear momentum. In 1936, Princeton physicist Richard Beth demonstrated that angular momentum - in either its spin or orbital form - when altered by the scattering or absorption of light can produce a mechanical torque on an object. Previous attempts to harness this transfer of angular momentum for a rotary motor have been hampered by the weakness of the interaction between photons and matter.

"The typical motors had to be at least micrometres or even millimeters in size in order to generate a sufficient amount of torque," says lead author Ming Liu, a PhD student in Zhang's group. "We've shown that in a nanostructure like our gammadion gold light mill, torque is greatly enhanced by the coupling of the incident light to plasmonic waves. The power density of our motors is very high. As a bonus, the rotational direction is controllable, a counterintuitive fact based on what we learn from wind mills."

The directional change, Liu explains, is made possible by the support of the four-armed gammadion structure for two major resonance modes - a wavelength of 810 nanometers, and a wavelength of 1,700 nanometers. When illuminated with a linearly polarized Gaussian beam of laser light at the shorter wavelength, the plasmonic motor rotated counterclockwise at a rate of 0.3 Hertz. When illuminated with a similar laser beam but at the larger wavelength, the nanomotor rotated at the same rate of speed but in a clockwise direction.

"When multiple motors are integrated into one silica microdisk, the torques applied on the disk from the individual motors accumulate and the overall torque is increased," Liu says. "For example, a silica disk embedded with four plasmonic nanomotors attains the same rotation speed with only half of the laser power applied as a disk embedded with a single motor."

The nanoscale size of this new light mill makes it ideal for powering NEMS, where the premium is on size rather than efficiency. Generating relatively powerful torque in a nanosized light mill also has numerous potential biological applications, including the controlled unwinding and rewinding of the DNA double helix. When these light mill motors are structurally optimized for efficiency, they could be useful for harvesting solar energy in nanoscopic systems.

"By designing multiple motors to work at different resonance frequencies and in a single direction, we could acquire torque from the broad range of wavelengths available in sunlight," Liu says.

This research was supported by DOE's Office of Science.


For more information about the research of Xiang Zhang visit xlab.me.berkeley.edu/xlabnews.htm

For more information about the Berkeley Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center visit www.sinam.org/


####

About Berkeley Lab
Berkeley Lab is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory located in Berkeley, California. It conducts unclassified scientific research for DOE’s Office of Science and is managed by the University of California. Visit our Website at www.lbl.gov/

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Lynn Yarris
(510) 486-5375

Copyright © Berkeley Lab

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

Animal study shows flexible, dissolvable silicon device promising for brain monitoring: Other applications include post-operative observation for vascular, cardiac, and orthopaedic procedures, finds Penn study May 5th, 2016

Speedy ion conduction in solid electrolytes clears road for advanced energy devices May 5th, 2016

Engineers create a better way to boil water -- with industrial, electronics applications May 5th, 2016

Clues on the path to a new lithium battery technology: Charging produces highly reactive singlet oxygen in lithium air batteries May 5th, 2016

NEMS

Nano-photonics meets nano-mechanics: Controlling on-chip nano-optics by graphene nano-opto-mechanics January 22nd, 2016

Mechanical quanta see the light January 20th, 2016

Nanodevices at one-hundredth the cost: New techniques for building microelectromechanical systems show promise December 20th, 2015

Nano-mechanical study offers new assessment of silicon for next-gen batteries September 25th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Animal study shows flexible, dissolvable silicon device promising for brain monitoring: Other applications include post-operative observation for vascular, cardiac, and orthopaedic procedures, finds Penn study May 5th, 2016

Speedy ion conduction in solid electrolytes clears road for advanced energy devices May 5th, 2016

Engineers create a better way to boil water -- with industrial, electronics applications May 5th, 2016

Clues on the path to a new lithium battery technology: Charging produces highly reactive singlet oxygen in lithium air batteries May 5th, 2016

Possible Futures

Animal study shows flexible, dissolvable silicon device promising for brain monitoring: Other applications include post-operative observation for vascular, cardiac, and orthopaedic procedures, finds Penn study May 5th, 2016

Speedy ion conduction in solid electrolytes clears road for advanced energy devices May 5th, 2016

Engineers create a better way to boil water -- with industrial, electronics applications May 5th, 2016

Clues on the path to a new lithium battery technology: Charging produces highly reactive singlet oxygen in lithium air batteries May 5th, 2016

Academic/Education

Oxford Instruments Asylum Research and McGill University Announce the McGill AFM Summer School and Workshop, May 12-13, 2016 May 4th, 2016

JPK reports on the use of a NanoWizard AFM system at the University of Kaiserslautern to study the interaction of bacteria with microstructured surfaces April 28th, 2016

The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute uses the ZetaView from Particle Metrix to study membrane microparticles as potential biomarkers for underlying diseases April 12th, 2016

FEI Partners with Five Pharmaceutical Companies, the Medical Research Council and the University of Cambridge to form Cryo-EM Research Consortium April 5th, 2016

Molecular Machines

Little ANTs: Researchers build the world's tiniest engine May 3rd, 2016

Researchers create artificial protein to control assembly of buckyballs April 27th, 2016

Physicists build engine consisting of one atom: World's smallest heat engine uses just a single particle April 17th, 2016

Revealing the fluctuations of flexible DNA in 3-D: First-of-their-kind images by Berkeley Lab-led research team could aid in use of DNA to build nanoscale devices March 31st, 2016

Nanomedicine

Animal study shows flexible, dissolvable silicon device promising for brain monitoring: Other applications include post-operative observation for vascular, cardiac, and orthopaedic procedures, finds Penn study May 5th, 2016

Unique nano-capsules promise the targeted drug delivery: Russian scientists created unique nano-capsules for the targeted drug delivery May 5th, 2016

The intermediates in a chemical reaction photographed 'red-handed' Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have for the first time succeeded in imaging all the steps in a complex organic reaction and have resolved the mechanisms that explain it May 4th, 2016

Nuclear pores captured on film: Using an ultra fast-scanning atomic force microscope, researchers from the University of Basel have filmed 'living' nuclear pore complexes at work for the first time May 3rd, 2016

Announcements

Speedy ion conduction in solid electrolytes clears road for advanced energy devices May 5th, 2016

Engineers create a better way to boil water -- with industrial, electronics applications May 5th, 2016

Clues on the path to a new lithium battery technology: Charging produces highly reactive singlet oxygen in lithium air batteries May 5th, 2016

Unique nano-capsules promise the targeted drug delivery: Russian scientists created unique nano-capsules for the targeted drug delivery May 5th, 2016

Nanobiotechnology

Animal study shows flexible, dissolvable silicon device promising for brain monitoring: Other applications include post-operative observation for vascular, cardiac, and orthopaedic procedures, finds Penn study May 5th, 2016

Unique nano-capsules promise the targeted drug delivery: Russian scientists created unique nano-capsules for the targeted drug delivery May 5th, 2016

The intermediates in a chemical reaction photographed 'red-handed' Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have for the first time succeeded in imaging all the steps in a complex organic reaction and have resolved the mechanisms that explain it May 4th, 2016

Nuclear pores captured on film: Using an ultra fast-scanning atomic force microscope, researchers from the University of Basel have filmed 'living' nuclear pore complexes at work for the first time May 3rd, 2016

Research partnerships

Speedy ion conduction in solid electrolytes clears road for advanced energy devices May 5th, 2016

The intermediates in a chemical reaction photographed 'red-handed' Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have for the first time succeeded in imaging all the steps in a complex organic reaction and have resolved the mechanisms that explain it May 4th, 2016

Making invisible physics visible: The Jayich Lab has created a new sensor technology that captures nanoscale images with high spatial resolution and sensitivity May 2nd, 2016

Cooling graphene-based film close to pilot-scale production April 30th, 2016

Solar/Photovoltaic

A View Through Wood Shows Futuristic Applications: Transparent wood made at UMD could create new windows, cars and solar panels May 5th, 2016

NREL finds nanotube semiconductors well-suited for PV systems April 27th, 2016

Flipping a chemical switch helps perovskite solar cells beat the heat April 26th, 2016

Manipulating light inside opaque layers April 24th, 2016

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







Car Brands
Buy website traffic