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Abstract:
Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field receiving extensive funding and development worldwide. A large number of novel processes occur on the nanoscale, and the unique properties of nanoparticles offer potential benefits in a range of applications, from consumer products to medicine and environmental protection. However, there remains considerable uncertainty with regard to the hazards and risks associated with nanoscience. An increased understanding of the environmental and human health impacts of engineered nanoparticles is essential for the responsible development of nanotechnology and appropriate evidence-based policy and guidelines for risk assessment.

Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Nanotechnology

Dublin | Posted on February 11th, 2010

Presenting the latest advances in the field from a variety of scientific disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive overview of this challenging, inter-disciplinary research area.

Topics covered include:

- The properties, preparation and applications of nanomaterials
- Characterization and analysis of manufactured nanoparticles
- The fate and behaviour of nanomaterials in aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric environments
- Ecotoxicology and human toxicology of manufactured nanoparticles
- Occupational health and exposure of nanomaterials
- Risk assessment and global regulatory and policy responses

Publisher: John Wiley

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Title Index:

Preface
Biographies
Contributors

Chapter 1 - Overview of Nanoscience in the Environment
1.1 Introduction
1.2 History
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Investment and International Efforts
1.5 Development: Four Anticipated Generations
1.6 Applications of Nanotechnology
1.7 Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology
1.8 Potential Adverse Effects of Nanomaterials
1.9 Classification
1.10 Sources of Nanomaterials in the Environment
1.11 Properties of Nanomaterials
1.12 Nanomaterial Structure-Toxicity Relationship
1.13 Environmental Fate and Behaviour of Nanomaterials
1.14 Potential for Human Exposure
1.15 Detection and Characterization of Nanomaterials
1.16 Issues to be Addressed
1.17 Conclusion
1.18 References

Chapter 2 - Nanomaterials: Properties, Preparation and Applications
2.1 Overview
2.2 Introduction
2.3 Nanoparticle Architecture
2.4 Particle Properties
2.5 Nanoparticle Preparation
2.6 Applications of Nanoparticles and Nanotechnology
2.7 Implication for Environmental Issues
2.8 Conclusions
2.9 References

Chapter 3 - Size/Shape-Property Relationships of Non-Carbonaceous Inorganic Nanoparticles and Their
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Inorganic Nanoparticle Anatomy
3.3 Redox Chemistry of Nanoparticles
3.4 Size Effects in Nanoparticle Sorption Processes
3.5 Nanoparticle Fate: Dissolution and Solid State Cation Movement
3.6 Effect of Nanoparticle Aggregation on Physical and Chemical Properties
3.7 Environmental Implications: General Discussion, Recommendations and Outlook
3.8 References

Chapter 4 - Natural Colloids and Nanoparticles in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Definition
4.3 Major Types of Environmental Colloids
4.4 Intrinsic Properties of Environmental Colloidal Particles
4.5 Interaction Forces Between Colloidal Particles
4.6 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids in Aquatic Systems
4.7 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids and Nanoparticles in Porous Media
4.8 Conclusion
4.9 References

Chapter 5 - Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sources of Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.3 Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.4 Fate and Behaviour of Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.5 Atmospheric Concentrations
5.6 Measurement Methods for Atmospheric Nanoparticles
5.7 Conclusions
5.8 References

Chapter 6 - Analysis and Characterization of Manufactured Nanoparticles in Aquatic Environments
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Nanoparticle Analysis and Characterization Methods
6.3 Analytical Test Strategy in NP Exposure Assessment
6.4 Conclusions
6.5 Acknowledgements
6.6 References

7. Ecotoxicology of Manufactured Nanoparticles
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Physico-Chemical Transformation of Nanoparticles
7.3 Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Environment
7.4 Development of Valid/Realistic Toxicity Testing Protocols
7.5 Review of Ecotoxicity Studies
7.6 General Conclusions and Future Directions
7.7 References

8. Exposure to Nanoparticles
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Physical Characteristics and Properties of Nanoparticles
8.3 Nanoparticle Exposure
8.4 Control of Exposure
8.5 Discussion
8.6 References

9. Human Toxicology and Effects of Nanoparticles
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Ultrafine Particle Toxicology
9.3 Engineered Nanoparticles
9.4 Relating Physico-Chemical Properties to Toxicity; Structure: Activity Relationships
9.5 Suggestions for Future Study Designs
9.6 Conclusions
9.7 Abbreviations
9.8 References

10. Risk Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Risk Assessment Process
10.3 Nanomaterials - Issues for Risk Assessment
10.4 Assembling Evidence for Safety and Intervention
10.5 International Case Studies
10.6 Data Gaps in Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials
10.7 Summary
10.8 References

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