Nanotechnology Now





Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Engineering in Oncology Center will probe forces that cause cancer to spread

The Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center at INBT will be headed by Denis Wirtz, left. Gregg Semenza will serve as associate director. (Photo by Will Kirk/JHU)
The Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center at INBT will be headed by Denis Wirtz, left. Gregg Semenza will serve as associate director. (Photo by Will Kirk/JHU)

Abstract:
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology have been awarded a $14.8 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to launch a research center aimed at unraveling the physical underpinnings that drive the growth and spread of cancer.

Engineering in Oncology Center will probe forces that cause cancer to spread

Baltimore, MD | Posted on December 2nd, 2009

The new Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center at INBT includes 11 Johns Hopkins faculty members affiliated with the INBT and four investigators from partner universities. The project's participants say that they hope this new line of research will lead to never-before-considered approaches to cancer therapy and diagnostics.

The Johns Hopkins center is one of 12 being launched by the National Cancer Institute to bring a new cadre of theoretical physicists, mathematicians, chemists and engineers to the study of cancer. During the five-year initiative, the NCI's Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers will take new, nontraditional approaches to cancer research by studying the physical laws and principles of cancer; evolution and evolutionary theory of cancer; information coding, decoding, transfer and translation in cancer; and ways to deconvolute cancer's complexity.

"By bringing a fresh set of eyes to the study of cancer, these new centers have great potential to advance, and sometimes challenge, accepted theories about cancer and its supportive microenvironment," said NCI Director John E. Niederhuber. "Physical scientists think in terms of time, space, pressure, heat and evolution in ways that we hope will lead to new understandings of the multitude of forces that govern cancer, and with that understanding, we hope to develop new and innovative methods of arresting tumor growth and metastasis."

The NCI, which is an agency of the National Institutes of Health, will allocate the Johns Hopkins-based Engineering in Oncology Center's funding over five years. As the name of the center suggests, the researchers will look at how physical sciences play a role in the way cancer spreads, commonly called metastasis.

Wirtz, Semenza to direct EOC

Denis Wirtz, a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering in the Whiting School of Engineering, will direct the center, and Gregg L. Semenza, a leading researcher at the School of Medicine, will serve as associate director.

"Metastasis is a highly coordinated, multistep process," Wirtz said. "Cancer cells break free from a primary tumor, penetrate into the bloodstream, evade host defenses, stick to the interior walls of blood vessels and travel to other organs, where they set up new cancer cell colonies. During this cascade of events, tumor cells push on and are pushed by mechanical forces within their microenvironment. Cells translate those mechanical forces into biochemical signals that affect cell growth and function. If we can gain a better understanding of this process, we may find new and better ways to treat cancer."

Wirtz, who is principal investigator, also serves as associate director of the university's Institute for NanoBioTechnology, a cross-divisional institute launched in May 2006 with 185 Johns Hopkins faculty members who are using nanoscience to answer questions in medicine, the basic sciences and public health.

The new cancer center will similarly draw on Johns Hopkins researchers with diverse expertise to study the role of physical forces involved in the development and spread of cancer.

"Mechanical forces inside the body, such as shear exerted by blood flowing through blood vessels, typically destroy the millions of cancer cells that are constantly shed from tumors," Wirtz said. "But the ‘fittest' of cancer cells survive these Darwinian-like selective pressures and may become the culprits that spread cancer. Little is known about the effect of mechanical forces on the regulation of cancer cell growth. That is what the Engineering in Oncology Center and the National Cancer Institute want to find out. The results should point us to therapies and diagnostic tools that complement existing genetic or molecular treatments."

In a congratulatory letter to Wirtz concerning the new center, Johns Hopkins President Ronald J. Daniels wrote, "This is a terrific achievement that highlights the value of interdisciplinary research and collaboration across the university, and the increasing importance this approach will have in the coming years. I am especially proud to see Johns Hopkins lead the way in this manner. … Not only will you be embarking into a new realm of scientific collaboration, you will be, at the same time, establishing Johns Hopkins as a leading center of excellence in this field. The ongoing fight against cancer demands new ideas, perspectives and approaches, and that is precisely what you are creating in [this] center."

Semenza, the associate director, is affiliated with the School of Medicine's departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Oncology and Radiation Oncology, and the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine. He is the C. Michael Armstrong Professor in Medicine and founding director of the Vascular Program at the school's Institute for Cell Engineering. He also has ties to the School of Medicine's Department of Biological Chemistry and to the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins.

Center will focus on three primary research aims

Semenza and Sharon Gerecht, an assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering, will lead one of the center's three key research projects related to how cancer spreads. They will focus on analyzing the makeup and physical properties of the extracellular matrix, the three-dimensional scaffold in which cells live.

"Normal cells live in a flexible scaffold, but cancer cells create a rigid scaffold that they climb through to invade normal tissue," Semenza said. "We will study how this change occurs and how it is affected by the amount of oxygen to which cancer cells are exposed. Our studies have shown that cancer cells are deprived of oxygen, which incites them to more aggressively invade the surrounding normal tissues where oxygen is more plentiful. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 controls the responses of cancer cells to low oxygen, and we have recently identified drugs that block the action of HIF-1 and inhibit tumor growth in experimental cancer models."

The center's second key research project teams Wirtz with Greg D. Longmore, a cancer cell biologist at Washington University in St. Louis. The two will study the physical basis for cancer cell adhesion and de-adhesion and how it increases the likelihood that cancer cells will break free, move into the bloodstream and migrate to other tissues. "Cancer cells are able to modulate proteins on the surface almost like a protein ‘brake' that allows them to adhere or de-adhere in response to mechanical forces," Wirtz said.

The center's third primary research project will be led by Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, professor and chair of the Whiting School's Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Martin L. Pomper, who holds appointments in the School of Medicine's Department of Radiology and the Kimmel Cancer Center. These two researchers will investigate the effects of fluid mechanical forces at different oxygen tension microenvironments on tumor cell signaling, adhesion and migration.

"Fluid flow in and around tumor tissue modulates the mechanical microenvironment, including the forces acting on the cell surface and the tethering force on cell-substrate connections," Konstantopoulos said. "Cells in the interior of a tumor mass experience a lower oxygen tension microenvironment and lower fluid velocities than those at the edges in proximity with a functional blood vessel, and are prompted to produce different biochemical signals. These differential responses affect tumor cell fate—that is, whether a cell will live or die, and whether it will be able to detach and migrate to secondary sites in the body."

All three projects will combine experimental and computational/theoretical results to develop a better picture of how these mechanical forces influence cancer metastasis.

An educational component for graduates and postdoctoral fellows

In addition to the research component, the Engineering in Oncology Center will have a multidisciplinary training program for predoctoral students and postdoctoral fellows. The training program will be co-directed by Peter Searson, INBT's director and the Joseph R. and Lynn C. Reynolds Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and the School of Medicine's Kenneth W. Kinzler, who is among the world's most-cited cancer biologists and who serves as co-director of the Johns Hopkins Ludwig Center.

Other Johns Hopkins researchers affiliated with the Engineering in Oncology Center are Sean X. Sun, associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, and two faculty members from the Department of Biomedical Engineering: Kevin Yarema, associate professor, and Aleksander S. Popel, professor.

In addition to Longmore, the researchers from other institutions who will participate in the Johns Hopkins-based center are Timothy C. Elston, a theoretical and computational biophysicist at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Yiider Tseng, an experimental biophysicist and biochemist at the University of Florida; and Charles W. Wolgemuth, a theoretical and computational biophysicist at the University of Connecticut.

The center will incorporate two dedicated research facilities, also known as cores. The EOC Imaging Core will be established under the existing Integrated Imaging Center on the Homewood campus. J. Michael McCaffery, associate research professor of biology in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, will oversee the Imaging Core and facilitate imaging resources for EOC faculty. Searson will oversee the EOC Microfabrication Core, which will assist researchers in making the needed materials and devices for their experiments.

The Engineering in Oncology Center will be administered by the Institute for NanoBioTechnology, located on the Homewood campus, where research will occur in renovated laboratory facilities. Training and collaboration with investigators located at the four other research universities on the grant will occur through periodic onsite visits and via Web-based platforms.

Related Links:

National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers program: physics.cancer.gov/centers/

Johns Hopkins Engineering in Oncology Center at INBT: engineering.oncology.jhu.edu/

Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology: inbt.jhu.edu/

####

About Johns Hopkins
The Institute for NanoBioTechnology at Johns Hopkins University brings together 193 researchers from: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, School of Medicine, Applied Physics Laboratory, and Whiting School of Engineering to create new knowledge and new technologies at the interface of nanoscience and medicine.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
For media inquiries contact:
Mary Spiro

410 516-4802

Copyright © Johns Hopkins

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

Basel physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents May 23rd, 2015

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Visualizing How Radiation Bombardment Boosts Superconductivity: Atomic-level flyovers show how impact sites of high-energy ions pin potentially disruptive vortices to keep high-current superconductivity flowing May 23rd, 2015

Conversion of Greenhouse Gases to Syngas in Presence of Nanocatalysts in Iran May 22nd, 2015

Openings/New facilities/Groundbreaking/Expansion

SUNY Poly CNSE and NIOSH Launch Federal Nano Health and Safety Consortium: May 20th, 2015

Janusz Bryzek Joins MEMS Industry Group to Lead New TSensors Division - New Division will Focus on Accelerating Development of Emerging Ultra-high Volume Sensors Supporting Abundance, mHealth and IoT May 14th, 2015

Grafoid Acquires MuAnalysis Inc; Expands Its Advanced Materials Testing Capabilities May 6th, 2015

Testing Facility for Graphene Enhanced Composite Pipes May 5th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Visualizing How Radiation Bombardment Boosts Superconductivity: Atomic-level flyovers show how impact sites of high-energy ions pin potentially disruptive vortices to keep high-current superconductivity flowing May 23rd, 2015

Nanotherapy effective in mice with multiple myeloma May 21st, 2015

Turn that defect upside down: Twin boundaries in lithium-ion batteries May 21st, 2015

Possible Futures

Simulations predict flat liquid May 21st, 2015

Nature inspires first artificial molecular pump: Simple design mimics pumping mechanism of life-sustaining proteins found in living cells May 19th, 2015

NNCO and Museum of Science Fiction to Collaborate on Nanotechnology and 3D Printing Panels at Awesome Con May 19th, 2015

Quantum 'gruyères' for spintronics of the future: Topological insulators become a little less 'elusive' May 12th, 2015

Academic/Education

SUNY Poly CNSE and NIOSH Launch Federal Nano Health and Safety Consortium: May 20th, 2015

New JEOL E-Beam Lithography System to Enhance Quantum NanoFab Capabilities May 6th, 2015

FEI Partners With the George Washington University to Equip New Science & Engineering Hall: Suite of new high-performance microscopes will be used for cutting-edge experiments at GW’s new research facility April 29th, 2015

Renishaw Raman systems used to study 2D materials at Boston University, Massachusetts, USA. April 28th, 2015

Nanomedicine

New Antibacterial Wound Dressing in Iran Can Display Replacement Time May 22nd, 2015

Researchers develop new way to manufacture nanofibers May 21st, 2015

Effective Nano-Micelles Designed in Iran to Treat Cancer May 20th, 2015

Nature inspires first artificial molecular pump: Simple design mimics pumping mechanism of life-sustaining proteins found in living cells May 19th, 2015

Announcements

Basel physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents May 23rd, 2015

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Visualizing How Radiation Bombardment Boosts Superconductivity: Atomic-level flyovers show how impact sites of high-energy ions pin potentially disruptive vortices to keep high-current superconductivity flowing May 23rd, 2015

New Antibacterial Wound Dressing in Iran Can Display Replacement Time May 22nd, 2015

Appointments/Promotions/New hires/Resignations/Deaths

Janusz Bryzek Joins MEMS Industry Group to Lead New TSensors Division - New Division will Focus on Accelerating Development of Emerging Ultra-high Volume Sensors Supporting Abundance, mHealth and IoT May 14th, 2015

Carbodeon Appoints Leading Industry Expert as Advisory Board Member May 7th, 2015

Dais Analytic Corporation Appoints Eliza Wang to Board of Directors: Company's Newest Director Brings Expertise in Commercial and Legal Matters Both in the United States and China; Joins on the Heels of Successful Business Development Trade Mission to China April 18th, 2015

Nanion Technologies Appoints James Costantin as Director of Customer Relations: Nanion is pleased to announce the appointment of Dr. James Costantin as Director of Customer Relations at Nanion Technologies Inc. March 31st, 2015

Nanobiotechnology

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Supercomputer unlocks secrets of plant cells to pave the way for more resilient crops: IBM partners with University of Melbourne and UQ May 21st, 2015

Researchers develop new way to manufacture nanofibers May 21st, 2015

Nature inspires first artificial molecular pump: Simple design mimics pumping mechanism of life-sustaining proteins found in living cells May 19th, 2015

Alliances/Partnerships/Distributorships

Samtec, Global Provider of Interconnect Systems, Joins IRT Nanoelec Silicon Photonics Program May 21st, 2015

SUNY Poly CNSE and NIOSH Launch Federal Nano Health and Safety Consortium: May 20th, 2015

Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Announces Official Launch of the Eagle Platinum Tile™ May 19th, 2015

DiATOME enables surface preparation for AFM and FIB May 19th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project