Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors





Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


android tablet pc

Home > Press > Carbon Nanofibers Cut Flammability of Upholstered Furniture

This microscope image of the remains of upholstery foam with carbon nanofiber additives after a burn test shows that the nanofibers in the foam retained their initial arrangement during the combustion process, forming an insulating structure with an extremely low density. Researchers believe that this “carbon foam” acts as a sponge to absorb the molten foam during burning and to prevent dripping. (Image shows a sample 24 millimeters across.)

Credit: NIST
This microscope image of the remains of upholstery foam with carbon nanofiber additives after a burn test shows that the nanofibers in the foam retained their initial arrangement during the combustion process, forming an insulating structure with an extremely low density. Researchers believe that this “carbon foam” acts as a sponge to absorb the molten foam during burning and to prevent dripping. (Image shows a sample 24 millimeters across.)

Credit: NIST

Abstract:
Carbon, the active ingredient in charcoal, is normally not considered a fire retardant, but researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have determined that adding a small amount of carbon nanofibers to the polyurethane foams used in some upholstered furniture can reduce flammability by about 35 percent when compared to foam infused with conventional fire retardants.

Carbon Nanofibers Cut Flammability of Upholstered Furniture

GAITHERSBURG, MD | Posted on December 9th, 2008

Laws require mattresses and upholstered furniture sold in California and used in public spaces such as hotels and offices be treated with fire retardants or barrier fabrics to minimize fire fatalities and injuries and to cut damage costs. According to the National Fire Protection Association, the total burden of fire in the United States was about $270 billion in 2005.

Ten years ago, NIST scientists found that nanoclays could be used as an effective fire retardant additive, but researchers have been seeking alternatives because nanoclay flame retardants do not prevent the melting and dripping of polyurethane foam when exposed to a fire. This molten foam accelerates the burning rate by as much as 300 percent. "It also creates so much smoke that it is a life-safety hazard," said Jeff Gilman, leader of the Materials Flammability Group in the Building and Fire Research Laboratory.

Researchers added carbon nanofibers to the foam because they knew that adding nanoparticles to a polymer normally increases the viscosity, so it doesn't flow as easily. "The carbon nanofibers help prevent the foam from dripping in a pool under the furniture and increasing the fire intensity," Gilman said. Studies of the foam after the experiments showed that carbon nanofibers seemed to create a thermally stable, entangled network that kept the foam from dripping.

NIST fire researchers have traditionally used upholstered furniture to study its flammability, but in this study, they developed a small-scale technique for evaluating the effect of dripping and pooling on foam flammability. About the size of a slice of toast, the foam samples were treated with one of six combinations of carbon nanofibers or conventional clay flame retardants. The foam "toast" was suspended vertically over a pan, ignited, and the amount of drip was measured. The foam with carbon nanofibers did not drip.

"These small-scale experiments correlate well with the fire behavior of larger foam samples and are easier and less expensive to conduct," said Gilman. "The small-scale tests will allow us to cost-effectively perform more experiments and help us find an optimal fire retardant faster."

"Carbon nanofibers are still more expensive than conventional flame retardant materials, but because the price is decreasing and so little needs to be used, they could soon be an affordable and effective option," Gilman explained.

NIST fire scientists will continue to study the mechanisms that reduce flammability and dripping and work with chemical companies, nano-additive suppliers, flame retardant suppliers and foam manufacturers to test new blends of foam and carbon nanofibers to improve flame retardant material. Additionally, new work is planned to develop sustainable, environmentally friendly fire retardants using cellulosic nanofibers and testing other innovative fire retardant approaches.

####

About NIST
Founded in 1901, NIST is a non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST's mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Evelyn Brown

(301) 975-5661

Copyright © NIST

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

Berkeley Lab Researchers Demonstrate First Size-based Chromatography Technique for the Study of Living Cells April 22nd, 2014

PETA science consortium to present hazard testing strategy at nanotoxicology meeting: High tech field ripe for use of sophisticated non-animal testing strategies April 22nd, 2014

Harris & Harris Group Notes the Receipt of Proceeds From the Sale of Molecular Imprints' Semiconductor Business to Canon April 22nd, 2014

National Space Society Congratulates SpaceX on the Success of CRS-3 and the First Flight of the Falcon 9R April 22nd, 2014

Nanotubes/Buckyballs

Amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes act as a carrier for nerve growth factor April 21st, 2014

Effects of Carbon Nanotubes Studied on Pregnant Mothers April 12th, 2014

Nanotech Business Review 2013-2014 April 9th, 2014

Scientists Succeed in Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen, Codeine in Drug Samples April 9th, 2014

Discoveries

Like a hall of mirrors, nanostructures trap photons inside ultrathin solar cells April 22nd, 2014

Nanomaterial Outsmarts Ions April 22nd, 2014

Vacuum Ultraviolet Lamp of the Future Created in Japan: First Solid-State Vacuum UV Phosphor, Described in APL-Materials, Promises Smaller, Safer, Longer Lasting, Low Power Lamps for Industrial Applications April 22nd, 2014

Berkeley Lab Researchers Demonstrate First Size-based Chromatography Technique for the Study of Living Cells April 22nd, 2014

Announcements

Berkeley Lab Researchers Demonstrate First Size-based Chromatography Technique for the Study of Living Cells April 22nd, 2014

PETA science consortium to present hazard testing strategy at nanotoxicology meeting: High tech field ripe for use of sophisticated non-animal testing strategies April 22nd, 2014

Harris & Harris Group Notes the Receipt of Proceeds From the Sale of Molecular Imprints' Semiconductor Business to Canon April 22nd, 2014

National Space Society Congratulates SpaceX on the Success of CRS-3 and the First Flight of the Falcon 9R April 22nd, 2014

Home

Scientists watch nanoparticles grow: Analysis allows tailoring materials for switchable windows and solar cells March 27th, 2014

Brighter inks, without pigment: Nanostructured capsules could bring about paints and electronic displays that never fade March 14th, 2014

Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Completes On Site Visit by PCAOB Audit Firm - Nears Completion of Audit in Preparation for Move to a Senior Stock Exchange in Late 2014 February 27th, 2014

UCF Researcher Bringing 3-D TV Back From The Dead February 12th, 2014

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE







  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More














ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2014 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE