Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors





Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


android tablet pc

Home > Press > New Quantum Dot Transistor Counts Individual Photons

NIST's modified field-effect transistor can count single photons, or particles of light. When light enters through the transmission window (see electron micrograph of top of device), it penetrates the gallium arsenide absorbing layer and separates electrons from the ‘holes’ they formerly occupied. Quantum dots (red dots) trap the positively charged holes, while electrons flow into the channel (green Xs). By measuring the channel current, researchers can determine the number of photons absorbed.

Credit: NIST
NIST's modified field-effect transistor can count single photons, or particles of light. When light enters through the transmission window (see electron micrograph of top of device), it penetrates the gallium arsenide absorbing layer and separates electrons from the ‘holes’ they formerly occupied. Quantum dots (red dots) trap the positively charged holes, while electrons flow into the channel (green Xs). By measuring the channel current, researchers can determine the number of photons absorbed.

Credit: NIST

Abstract:
A transistor containing quantum dots that can count individual photons (the smallest particles of light) has been designed and demonstrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The semiconductor device could be integrated easily into electronics and may be able to operate at higher temperatures than other single-photon detectors—practical advantages for applications such as quantum key distribution (QKD) for "unbreakable" encryption using single photons.

New Quantum Dot Transistor Counts Individual Photons

GAITHERSBURG, MD | Posted on October 20th, 2007

The NIST device, described in a new paper,* can accurately count 1, 2 or 3 photons at least 83 percent of the time. It is the first transistor-based detector to count numbers of photons; most other types of single-photon detectors simply "click" in response to any small number of photons. (See table for a comparison of various types of single-photon detectors used at NIST.) Counting requires a linear, stepwise response and low-noise operation. This capability is essential for advanced forms of precision optical metrology—a focus at NIST—and could be used both to detect photons and to evaluate single-photon sources for QKD. The new device also has the potential to be cooled electronically, at much higher temperatures than typical cryogenic photon detectors.

Dubbed QDOGFET, the new detector contains about 1,000 quantum dots, nanoscale clusters of semiconductors with unusual electronic properties. The NIST dots are custom-made to have the lowest energy of any component in the detector, like the bottom of a drain. A voltage applied to the transistor produces an internal current, or channel. Photons enter the device and their energy is transferred to electrons in a semiconductor "absorbing layer," separating the electrons from the "holes" they formerly occupied. As each photon is absorbed, a positively charged hole is trapped by the quantum dot drain, while the corresponding electron is swept into the channel. The amount of current flowing in the channel depends on the number of holes trapped by quantum dots. By measuring the channel response, scientists can count the detected photons. NIST measurements show that, on average, each trapped hole boosts the channel current by about one-fifth of a nanoampere. The detector has an internal quantum efficiency (percentage of absorbed photons that result in trapped holes) of 68 ± 18 percent, a record high for this type of photon detector.

The QDOGFET currently detects single photons at wavelengths of about 800 nanometers. By using different semiconductor materials, NIST researchers hope to make detectors that respond to the longer near-infrared wavelengths used in telecommunications. In addition, researchers hope to boost the external quantum efficiency (percentage of photons hitting the detector that are actually detected), now below 10 percent, and operate the device at faster speeds.

The research is supported in part by the Disruptive Technology Office. The authors include one from Los Alamos National Laboratory and one from Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.

* E.J. Gansen, M.A. Rowe, M.B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T.E. Harvey, M.Y. Su, R.H. Hadfield, S.W. Nam and R.P. Mirin. Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor. Nature Photonics. 1, 585 - 588 (2007). Published on-line Oct. 1, 2007.

####

About NIST
From automated teller machines and atomic clocks to mammograms and semiconductors, innumerable products and services rely in some way on technology, measurement, and standards provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Founded in 1901, NIST is a non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST's mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Laura Ost

(303) 497-4880

Copyright © NIST

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

Announcements

Nano-supercapacitors for electric cars July 25th, 2014

New imaging agent provides better picture of the gut July 25th, 2014

Breakthrough laser experiment reveals liquid-like motion of atoms in an ultra-cold cluster: University of Leicester research team unlocks insights into creation of new nano-materials July 25th, 2014

Scientists Test Nanoparticle "Alarm Clock" to Awaken Immune Systems Put to Sleep by Cancer July 25th, 2014

Tools

Malvern Instruments completes acquisition of MicroCal and announces purchase of Archimedes product from Affinity Biosensors July 25th, 2014

Hysitron is Awarded TWO R&D 100 Awards for Highly Innovative Technology Developments in the Areas of Extreme Environments and Biological Mechanical Property Testing July 23rd, 2014

The Hiden EQP Plasma Diagnostic with on-board MCA July 22nd, 2014

Nanometrics Announces Upcoming Investor Events July 22nd, 2014

Quantum Dots/Rods

Researchers create quantum dots with single-atom precision June 30th, 2014

New Los Alamos Approach May Be Key to Quantum Dot Solar Cells With Real Gains in Efficiency: Nanoengineering Boosts Carrier Multiplication in Quantum Dots June 19th, 2014

MIPT-based researcher predicts new state of matter June 17th, 2014

Technology using microwave heating may impact electronics manufacture June 10th, 2014

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More














ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2014 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE