Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors



Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


android tablet pc

Home > Press > Ceria Nanoparticles Catalyze Reactions for Cleaner-Fuel Future

Abstract:
Discovery may lead to catalytic converters that are better at cleaning up auto exhaust, and/or to more-efficient ways of generating hydrogen.

Ceria Nanoparticles Catalyze Reactions for Cleaner-Fuel Future

San Diego, CA | March 15, 2005

Experiments on ceria (cerium oxide) nanoparticles carried out at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory may lead to catalytic converters that are better at cleaning up auto exhaust, and/or to more-efficient ways of generating hydrogen -- a promising zero-emission fuel for the future. Brookhaven chemist Jose Rodriguez will present results from two studies exploring the composition, structure, and reactivity of these versatile nanoparticles during the 229th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society on Tuesday, March 15, at 8:15 a.m. in room Del Mar A of the Hyatt Regency, San Diego, California.

After using a novel technique to synthesize the ceria nanoparticles, Rodriguez and coworkers Xianqin Wang and Jonathan Hanson used bright beams of x-rays at the National Synchrotron Light Source to study how their composition, structure, and reactivity changed in response to doping with zirconium in one case, and impregnation with gold in another.

"In a catalytic converter, ceria acts as a buffer, absorbing or releasing oxygen, depending on the conditions of the engine, to maintain the catalyst in its optimum operating condition for converting harmful emissions such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas," Rodriguez said. Others have found that adding zirconium improves ceria's ability to store and release oxygen.

The synchrotron studies at Brookhaven explain why: Zirconium changes the ceria's structure to increase the number of oxygen "vacancies" -- or places for oxygen uptake and release. Furthermore, Rodriguez says, "The ceria nanoparticles we studied have much better performance, higher chemical reactivity, than the bulk form of ceria currently used in catalytic converters." Thus, this research holds promise for more-efficient catalytic converters -- and cleaner air.

In the second study, Wang, Hanson, and Rodriguez deposited gold on the surface of ceria nanoparticles and used x-rays at the synchrotron to determine the catalyst's "active phase" -- the conformation responsible for the catalytic activity -- in the conversion of water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. This "water-gas shift" reaction is important for generating hydrogen, which can be used for chemical transformations and as a fuel in a hydrogen-based economy. Hydrogen is one of the leading energy sources being investigated by scientists sponsored by the Department of Energy as part of its mission to ensure the nation's future energy needs.

"In both cases, we are learning about the fundamental conditions necessary for optimal operation of the catalysts," Rodriguez said. "This kind of knowledge eventually will lead to a rational design of even more effective catalysts." This research was funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.

One of the ten national laboratories overseen and funded primarily by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization. Visit Brookhaven Lab's electronic newsroom for links, news archives, graphics, and more: www.bnl.gov/newsroom



Contact:
Media and Communications Office, Bldg. 134
Brookhaven National Laboratory
PO Box 5000
Upton, New York 11973-5000
phone: 631 344-8350 or 631 344-2345
fax: 631 344-3368
e-mail: pubaf@bnl.gov
or bulletin@bnl.gov

Copyright © BNL

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

Possible Futures

A novel method for identifying the body’s ‘noisiest’ networks November 19th, 2014

Researchers discern the shapes of high-order Brownian motions November 17th, 2014

VDMA Electronics Production Equipment: Growth track for 2014 and 2015 confirmed: Business climate survey shows robust industry sector November 14th, 2014

Open Materials Development Will Be Key for HP's Success in 3D Printing: HP can make a big splash in 3D printing, but it needs to shore up technology claims and avoid the temptation of the razor/razor blade business model in order to flourish November 11th, 2014

Materials/Metamaterials

'Giant' charge density disturbances discovered in nanomaterials: Juelich researchers amplify Friedel oscillations in thin metallic films November 26th, 2014

Lawrence Livermore researchers develop efficient method to produce nanoporous metals November 25th, 2014

Research yields material made of single-atom layers that snap together like Legos November 25th, 2014

Aromatic food chemistry to the making of copper nanowires November 24th, 2014

Announcements

Production of Anticancer Drug from Nanofibers in Iran November 28th, 2014

SEMATECH to Showcase Innovation and Advances in Manufacturing at SEMICON Japan 2014: SEMATECH experts will share the latest techniques, emerging trends and best practices in advanced manufacturing strategies and methodologies November 26th, 2014

Australian startup creates world’s first 100% cotton hydrophobic T-Shirts November 26th, 2014

The mysterious 'action at a distance' between liquid containers November 26th, 2014

Environment

Iranian Experts Clean Uranium-Contaminated Water by Nano-Particles November 23rd, 2014

Silver Nanoparticles Produced in Iran from Forest Plants Extract November 20th, 2014

Nano Sorbents Able to Remove Pollutions Caused by Oil Derivatives November 20th, 2014

Application of Nanocomposites in Production of Photocatalysts for Water Treatment November 17th, 2014

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More












ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2014 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE