Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Leading bugs to the death chamber: A kinder face of cholesterol

A phagosome is shown with bugs trapped inside it by the lipid membrane of the phagosome (green). Dynein motors (red) have assembled into cholesterol rich domains (yellow patches) on the membrane. A team of Dyneins is also pulling the phagosome along a microtubule. The direction of motion (black arrow) is towards a lysosome, where the bugs will be killed. Another phagosome is fusing with a lysosome.
CREDIT: Mukesh Kumar (Artwork) and Autostakkert.com (Bug image)
A phagosome is shown with bugs trapped inside it by the lipid membrane of the phagosome (green). Dynein motors (red) have assembled into cholesterol rich domains (yellow patches) on the membrane. A team of Dyneins is also pulling the phagosome along a microtubule. The direction of motion (black arrow) is towards a lysosome, where the bugs will be killed. Another phagosome is fusing with a lysosome.

CREDIT: Mukesh Kumar (Artwork) and Autostakkert.com (Bug image)

Abstract:
Cells of our immune system kill pathogens by enclosing them in a compartment called the phagosome. The phagosome undergoes programmed maturation, where the pathogen is degraded. Intimately linked to this degradation is active transport of the phagosome inside cells by nanoscale "Motor" proteins such as Dynein and Kinesin, which are force generators for many kinds of biological movements.

Leading bugs to the death chamber: A kinder face of cholesterol

Mumbai, India | Posted on February 8th, 2016

Phagosomes carried by the Motors initially move in a back-and-forth manner near the cell periphery, and mature by fusing with other compartments. As time passes, there is a switch that causes the phagosomes to move in an almost unidirectional manner towards the cell centre. Here, they fuse with acidic lysosomes so that the pathogen can be degraded.

The switch in the phagosome's motion is important for the degradation of pathogens as has been observed in the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella who abort this switch as a strategy for survival and infection.

Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research now show that the "switch" in a phagosome's fate is because of the formation of cholesterol-rich domains called lipid rafts on the phagosome membrane. "We have found the transport of pathogens to lysosomes is achieved by the physical clustering of many nanoscale Dynein motors", says Professor Roop Mallik, the lead scientist of this study.

Dynein motors cluster into these lipid raft domains, and by doing so are able to work cooperatively in large teams. This cholesterol induced assembly of Dynein-teams transports the phagosome towards acidic lysosomes for degradation. The results of this study will be published in the February 11 issue of the journal Cell.

Importantly, they also show that a lipid molecule from the parasite Leishmania donovani that causes Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar), a deadly disease endemic to many tropical countries including India, is able to disrupt the clustering of Dynein, and therefore prevent the transport of phagosomes towards lysosomes. This may be a mechanism by which Leishmania can spread infection by surviving and multiplying inside the immune cells of our liver and spleen.

Says Professor Mallik, "This discovery may help devise treatment strategies against such dangerous infections. These results are also very relevant to the pathogens that cause Tuberculosis and Typhoid. Our work also shows how the much hated molecule cholesterol, can be useful in clearing infections."

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Roop Mallik

91-222-278-2702

Copyright © Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

RELATED JOURNAL ARTICLE:

Related News Press

News and information

Study provides insight into how nanoparticles interact with biological systems: Findings can help scientists engineer nanoparticles that are ‘benign by design’ October 18th, 2018

Iran World’s Second Largest Producer of Nano-Catalysts October 17th, 2018

Iran Unveils Its First Homegrown 3D Nano Printer October 17th, 2018

Fat-Repellent Nanolayers Can Make Oven Cleaning Easier October 17th, 2018

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Files for Regulatory Clearance to Begin Phase 1 Study of ARO-ANG3 October 15th, 2018

Graphene shows unique potential to exceed bandwidth demands of future telecommunications October 12th, 2018

High-performance self-assembled catalyst for SOFC October 12th, 2018

Tracking a Killer: UCSB, UCSD and SBP researchers trace the complex and variable pathways to the deadly condition known as sepsis October 12th, 2018

Nanomedicine

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Hosts R&D Day on Pipeline of RNAi Therapeutics October 17th, 2018

Big award enables study of small surfaces: Rice U.'s Matt Jones wins Packard Fellowship to view nanoscale chemical reactions October 15th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Files for Regulatory Clearance to Begin Phase 1 Study of ARO-ANG3 October 15th, 2018

180 Degree Capital Corp. Announces New Portfolio Holdings – Airgain, Inc., EMCORE Corporation, Lantronix, Inc. and PDL BioPharma, Inc. October 12th, 2018

Discoveries

Study provides insight into how nanoparticles interact with biological systems: Findings can help scientists engineer nanoparticles that are ‘benign by design’ October 18th, 2018

Researchers quickly harvest 2-D materials, bringing them closer to commercialization: Efficient method for making single-atom-thick, wafer-scale materials opens up opportunities in flexible electronics October 12th, 2018

Graphene shows unique potential to exceed bandwidth demands of future telecommunications October 12th, 2018

High-performance self-assembled catalyst for SOFC October 12th, 2018

Announcements

Study provides insight into how nanoparticles interact with biological systems: Findings can help scientists engineer nanoparticles that are ‘benign by design’ October 18th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Hosts R&D Day on Pipeline of RNAi Therapeutics October 17th, 2018

Iran Produces Cooling Fabrics Using Nanotechnology October 17th, 2018

Iran World’s Second Largest Producer of Nano-Catalysts October 17th, 2018

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

Study provides insight into how nanoparticles interact with biological systems: Findings can help scientists engineer nanoparticles that are ‘benign by design’ October 18th, 2018

Big award enables study of small surfaces: Rice U.'s Matt Jones wins Packard Fellowship to view nanoscale chemical reactions October 15th, 2018

Graphene shows unique potential to exceed bandwidth demands of future telecommunications October 12th, 2018

High-performance self-assembled catalyst for SOFC October 12th, 2018

Nanobiotechnology

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Hosts R&D Day on Pipeline of RNAi Therapeutics October 17th, 2018

Big award enables study of small surfaces: Rice U.'s Matt Jones wins Packard Fellowship to view nanoscale chemical reactions October 15th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Files for Regulatory Clearance to Begin Phase 1 Study of ARO-ANG3 October 15th, 2018

180 Degree Capital Corp. Announces New Portfolio Holdings – Airgain, Inc., EMCORE Corporation, Lantronix, Inc. and PDL BioPharma, Inc. October 12th, 2018

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project