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Nuclear pores are large protein complexes that cross the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus. There are about an average of 2000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), in the nuclear envelope of a vertebrate cell, but it varies depending on cell type and the stage in the life cycle.
Small particles (< ~40 kDa) are able to pass through the nuclear pore complex by passive diffusion. Larger particles are also able to pass through the large diameter of the pore but at almost negligible rates. Efficient passage through the complex requires several protein factors. Karyopherins, which may act as import ins or export ins are part of the Importin-β super-family which all share a similar three-dimensional structure.
There are different export pathways through the NPC for each RNA class that exists. RNA export is also signal mediated (NES); the NES is in RNA-binding proteins (except for tRNA which has no adapter). It is notable that all viral RNAs and cellular RNAs (tRNA, rRNA, U snRNA, microRNA) except mRNA are dependent on RanGTP. Conserved mRNA export factors are necessary for mRNA nuclear export.
Nanobotmodels Medical Animation (www.nanobotmodels.com) made detailed model of nuclear pore complex. Picture of the nuclear pore cross-section shows viral RNA transport into the nucleus. This model is the part of cancer education project and will cover human papillomavirus life cycle.
Nanobotmodels made this detailed model of nuclear pore and surrounding proteins uses ePMV software to show real protein structure. The open-source uPy plugin, embedded Python Molecular Viewer (ePMV) runs molecular-modeling software directly in several professional 3D animation applications.
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