Nanotechnology Now







Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Researchers gain new molecular-level understanding of the brain's recovery after stroke

Abstract:
A specific MicroRNA, a short set of RNA (ribonuclease) sequences, naturally packaged into minute (50 nanometers) lipid containers called exosomes, are released by stem cells after a stroke and contribute to better neurological recovery according to a new animal study by Henry Ford Hospital researchers.

Researchers gain new molecular-level understanding of the brain's recovery after stroke

Detroit, MI | Posted on June 13th, 2013

The important role of a specific microRNA transferred from stem cells to brain cells via the exosomes to enhance functional recovery after a stroke was shown in lab rats. This study provides fundamental new insight into how stem cells affect injured tissue and also offers hope for developing novel treatments for stroke and neurological diseases, the leading cause of long-term disability in adult humans.

Although most stroke victims recover some ability to voluntarily use their hands and other body parts, nearly half are left with weakness on one side of their body, while a substantial number are permanently disabled.

Currently no treatment exists for improving or restoring this lost motor function in stroke patients, mainly because of mysteries about how the brain and nerves repair themselves.

"This study may have solved one of those mysteries by showing how certain stem cells play a role in the brain's ability to heal itself to differing degrees after stroke or other trauma," says study author Michael Chopp, Ph.D., scientific director of the Henry Ford Neuroscience Institute and vice chairman of the department of Neurology at Henry Ford Hospital.

The researchers noted that Henry Ford's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all the experimental procedures used in the new study.

The experiment began by isolating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow of lab rats. These MSCs are then genetically altered to release exosomes that contain specific microRNA molecules. The MSCs then become "factories" producing exosomes containing specific microRNAs. These microRNAs act as master switches that regulate biological function.

The new study showed for the first time that a specific microRNA, miR-133b, carried by these exosomes contributes to functional recovery after a stroke.

The researchers genetically raised or lowered the amount of miR-133b in MSCs and, respectively, treated the rats. When these MSCs are injected into the bloodstream 24 hours after stroke, they enter the brain and release their exosomes. When the exosomes were enriched with the miR-133b, they amplified neurological recovery, and when the exosomes were deprived of the miR-133b, the neurological recovery was substantially reduced.

Stroke was induced under anesthesia by inserting a nylon thread up the carotid artery to occlude a major artery in the brain, the middle cerebral artery. MSCs were then injected 24 hours after the induction of stroke in these animals and neurological recovery was measured.

As a measure on neurological recovery, rats were given two types of behavioral tests to measure the normal function of their front legs and paws - a "foot-fault test," to see how well they could walk on an unevenly spaced grid; and an "adhesive removal test" to measure how long it took them to remove a piece of tape stuck to their front paws.

Researchers then separated the disabled rats into several groups and injected each group with a specific dosage of saline, MSCs and MSCs with increased or decreased miR-133b, respectively. The two behavioral tests were again given to the rats three, seven and 14 days after treatment.

The data demonstrated that the enriched miR-133b exosome package greatly promoted neurological recovery and enhanced axonal plasticity, an aspect of brain rewiring, and the diminished miR-133b exosome package failed to enhance neurological recovery

While the research team was careful to note that this was an animal study, its findings offer hope for new ways to address the single biggest concern of stroke victims as well as those with neural injury such as traumatic brain injury and spinal cord damage - regaining neurological function for a better quality of life.

Funding source: R01 AG037506/AG/NIA NIH HHS and R01 NS066041/NS/NINDS NIH HHS

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Dwight Angell

313-850-3471

Copyright © Henry Ford Health System

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

The study, to be published in the journal Stem Cells, is available at:

Related News Press

News and information

Carbon nanoballs can greatly contribute to sustainable energy supply January 27th, 2015

The laser pulse that gets shorter all by itself: Ultrashort laser pulses have become an indispensable tool for atomic and molecular research; A new technology makes creating short infrared pulses easy and cheap January 27th, 2015

New pathway to valleytronics January 27th, 2015

Stomach acid-powered micromotors get their first test in a living animal January 27th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Researchers Make Magnetic Graphene: UC Riverside research could lead to new multi-functional electronic devices January 27th, 2015

New pathway to valleytronics January 27th, 2015

Nanoshuttle wear and tear: It's the mileage, not the age January 26th, 2015

Visualizing interacting electrons in a molecule: Scientists at Aalto University and the University of Zurich have succeeded in directly imaging how electrons interact within a single molecule January 26th, 2015

Nanomedicine

Nanoliposomes Help Efforts to Cure Bacterial Infections January 27th, 2015

Stomach acid-powered micromotors get their first test in a living animal January 27th, 2015

Engineering self-assembling amyloid fibers January 26th, 2015

Promising use of nanodiamonds in delivering cancer drug to kill cancer stem cells: NUS study shows that delivery of Epirubicin by nanodiamonds resulted in a normally lethal dosage of Epirubicin becoming a safe and effective dosage for treatment of liver cancer January 26th, 2015

Discoveries

Carbon nanoballs can greatly contribute to sustainable energy supply January 27th, 2015

The laser pulse that gets shorter all by itself: Ultrashort laser pulses have become an indispensable tool for atomic and molecular research; A new technology makes creating short infrared pulses easy and cheap January 27th, 2015

New pathway to valleytronics January 27th, 2015

Stomach acid-powered micromotors get their first test in a living animal January 27th, 2015

Announcements

Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Announces New OEM Customer January 27th, 2015

Carbon nanoballs can greatly contribute to sustainable energy supply January 27th, 2015

The laser pulse that gets shorter all by itself: Ultrashort laser pulses have become an indispensable tool for atomic and molecular research; A new technology makes creating short infrared pulses easy and cheap January 27th, 2015

New pathway to valleytronics January 27th, 2015

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

Carbon nanoballs can greatly contribute to sustainable energy supply January 27th, 2015

The laser pulse that gets shorter all by itself: Ultrashort laser pulses have become an indispensable tool for atomic and molecular research; A new technology makes creating short infrared pulses easy and cheap January 27th, 2015

New pathway to valleytronics January 27th, 2015

Stomach acid-powered micromotors get their first test in a living animal January 27th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2015 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE