Nanotechnology Now





Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Researchers gain new molecular-level understanding of the brain's recovery after stroke

Abstract:
A specific MicroRNA, a short set of RNA (ribonuclease) sequences, naturally packaged into minute (50 nanometers) lipid containers called exosomes, are released by stem cells after a stroke and contribute to better neurological recovery according to a new animal study by Henry Ford Hospital researchers.

Researchers gain new molecular-level understanding of the brain's recovery after stroke

Detroit, MI | Posted on June 13th, 2013

The important role of a specific microRNA transferred from stem cells to brain cells via the exosomes to enhance functional recovery after a stroke was shown in lab rats. This study provides fundamental new insight into how stem cells affect injured tissue and also offers hope for developing novel treatments for stroke and neurological diseases, the leading cause of long-term disability in adult humans.

Although most stroke victims recover some ability to voluntarily use their hands and other body parts, nearly half are left with weakness on one side of their body, while a substantial number are permanently disabled.

Currently no treatment exists for improving or restoring this lost motor function in stroke patients, mainly because of mysteries about how the brain and nerves repair themselves.

"This study may have solved one of those mysteries by showing how certain stem cells play a role in the brain's ability to heal itself to differing degrees after stroke or other trauma," says study author Michael Chopp, Ph.D., scientific director of the Henry Ford Neuroscience Institute and vice chairman of the department of Neurology at Henry Ford Hospital.

The researchers noted that Henry Ford's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all the experimental procedures used in the new study.

The experiment began by isolating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow of lab rats. These MSCs are then genetically altered to release exosomes that contain specific microRNA molecules. The MSCs then become "factories" producing exosomes containing specific microRNAs. These microRNAs act as master switches that regulate biological function.

The new study showed for the first time that a specific microRNA, miR-133b, carried by these exosomes contributes to functional recovery after a stroke.

The researchers genetically raised or lowered the amount of miR-133b in MSCs and, respectively, treated the rats. When these MSCs are injected into the bloodstream 24 hours after stroke, they enter the brain and release their exosomes. When the exosomes were enriched with the miR-133b, they amplified neurological recovery, and when the exosomes were deprived of the miR-133b, the neurological recovery was substantially reduced.

Stroke was induced under anesthesia by inserting a nylon thread up the carotid artery to occlude a major artery in the brain, the middle cerebral artery. MSCs were then injected 24 hours after the induction of stroke in these animals and neurological recovery was measured.

As a measure on neurological recovery, rats were given two types of behavioral tests to measure the normal function of their front legs and paws - a "foot-fault test," to see how well they could walk on an unevenly spaced grid; and an "adhesive removal test" to measure how long it took them to remove a piece of tape stuck to their front paws.

Researchers then separated the disabled rats into several groups and injected each group with a specific dosage of saline, MSCs and MSCs with increased or decreased miR-133b, respectively. The two behavioral tests were again given to the rats three, seven and 14 days after treatment.

The data demonstrated that the enriched miR-133b exosome package greatly promoted neurological recovery and enhanced axonal plasticity, an aspect of brain rewiring, and the diminished miR-133b exosome package failed to enhance neurological recovery

While the research team was careful to note that this was an animal study, its findings offer hope for new ways to address the single biggest concern of stroke victims as well as those with neural injury such as traumatic brain injury and spinal cord damage - regaining neurological function for a better quality of life.

Funding source: R01 AG037506/AG/NIA NIH HHS and R01 NS066041/NS/NINDS NIH HHS

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Dwight Angell

313-850-3471

Copyright © Henry Ford Health System

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

The study, to be published in the journal Stem Cells, is available at:

Related News Press

News and information

Nanostructures Increase Corrosion Resistance in Metallic Body Implants May 24th, 2015

Iranian Scientists Use Magnetic Field to Transfer Anticancer Drug to Tumor Tissue May 24th, 2015

Basel physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents May 23rd, 2015

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Visualizing How Radiation Bombardment Boosts Superconductivity: Atomic-level flyovers show how impact sites of high-energy ions pin potentially disruptive vortices to keep high-current superconductivity flowing May 23rd, 2015

Nanotherapy effective in mice with multiple myeloma May 21st, 2015

Turn that defect upside down: Twin boundaries in lithium-ion batteries May 21st, 2015

Nanomedicine

Nanostructures Increase Corrosion Resistance in Metallic Body Implants May 24th, 2015

Iranian Scientists Use Magnetic Field to Transfer Anticancer Drug to Tumor Tissue May 24th, 2015

New Antibacterial Wound Dressing in Iran Can Display Replacement Time May 22nd, 2015

Researchers develop new way to manufacture nanofibers May 21st, 2015

Discoveries

Nanostructures Increase Corrosion Resistance in Metallic Body Implants May 24th, 2015

Iranian Scientists Use Magnetic Field to Transfer Anticancer Drug to Tumor Tissue May 24th, 2015

Basel physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents May 23rd, 2015

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Announcements

Nanostructures Increase Corrosion Resistance in Metallic Body Implants May 24th, 2015

Iranian Scientists Use Magnetic Field to Transfer Anticancer Drug to Tumor Tissue May 24th, 2015

Basel physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents May 23rd, 2015

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

Nanostructures Increase Corrosion Resistance in Metallic Body Implants May 24th, 2015

Iranian Scientists Use Magnetic Field to Transfer Anticancer Drug to Tumor Tissue May 24th, 2015

Basel physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents May 23rd, 2015

This Slinky lookalike 'hyperlens' helps us see tiny objects: The photonics advancement could improve early cancer detection, nanoelectronics manufacturing and scientists' ability to observe single molecules May 23rd, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project