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Companies that introduce fracturing fluids into wells in the earth may be subject to liability for the effects of their operations on the earth and on groundwater adjacent the wells. Positive identification of a company's fluids can avert this liability.
In a typical fracking operation, millions of gallons of fracturing fluids or "frac" fluids are pumped into an earth formation much like an earth laxative to facilitate the production of hydrocarbons which are tightly bound up in the earth. In addition to water, which is 99% percent or more of the frac fluid, additives such as surfactants, breakers, and polymers are included with the frac fluid. When, for example, a landowner two miles away from a well that has been fracced accuses the fracking company of polluting his fields or his water, it is often difficult to disprove the accusations. By using NanoIdentifiers, any frac fluid can be positively identified - or an accused fluid can be positively determined to be not a fluid of the fracking company. The nanoIdentifiers can be passive amounts of known nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes or nanotubes functionalized with known substances) or the nanomaterial can be active nanorobots, NanoTag items, or nanoreporters that can transmit identification signals and information.
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