Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors



Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


android tablet pc

Home > Press > How natural oils can be hydrogenated without making unhealthy trans fats

Francisco Zaera is a professor in the Department of Chemistry at UC Riverside. Photo credit: UCR Strategic Communications.
Francisco Zaera is a professor in the Department of Chemistry at UC Riverside. Photo credit: UCR Strategic Communications.

Abstract:
UC Riverside researchers illustrate how controlling shape of heterogeneous catalysts can promote desired chemical reaction

How natural oils can be hydrogenated without making unhealthy trans fats

Riverside, CA | Posted on January 23rd, 2009

To prolong the shelf life of foods, manufacturers often add hydrogen to natural oils, a process called hydrogenation. But hydrogenation also results in the production of trans fats, which have adverse health effects such as raising bad cholesterol and increasing the risk for coronary heart diseases.

Trans fats are found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies and snacks. Health authorities worldwide recommend that people reduce their consumption of trans fats.

Now UC Riverside chemists have designed a catalyst - a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction - that allows hydrogenated oils to be made while minimizing the production of trans fats.

In their experiments, the researchers, led by Francisco Zaera, a professor of chemistry, used platinum, a common catalyst for these processes. By controlling the shape of the platinum particles, the Zaera group was able to make the catalyst more selective.

Catalytic selectivity refers to the ability of a catalyst to select a specific pathway from among many possible chemical reactions. In the case of the researchers' experiments, selectivity refers to the production of partially hydrogenated fats without the making of trans fats.

Zaera's lab found that the platinum catalyst performed most selectively when its particles assumed tetrahedral shapes, with the atoms arranged in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. Particles with these shapes allow for the preservation of the harmless cis configuration in the hydrogenated fats. Other lattices, the researchers found, favor the production of trans fats.

Platinum catalysts such as those used by the Zaera group are considered heterogeneous because they exist in a different phase (solid) than the reactants (liquid or gas). Compared with homogeneous catalysts, where the catalyst is in the same phase (liquid) as the reactants, heterogeneous catalysts have the advantages of easy preparation, handling, separation from the reaction mixture, reuse, high stability, and low cost.

But their main disadvantage is that, unlike homogeneous catalysts, which tend to be molecular, heterogeneous catalysts must be dispersed as small particles in a high surface-area support in order to optimize their use. This typically results in catalysts with surfaces of ill-defined structures.

The research by Zaera and his colleagues is a breakthrough also because it shows for the first time that it is possible to achieve selectivity with heterogeneous catalysts like platinum by controlling the structure of their surfaces.

"The more control we can exert on how we prepare catalysts, the more we can control the catalytic selectivity of a particular chemical process," Zaera said. "Our work shows that it is possible to make heterogeneous catalysts that afford us more control on selectivity. This opens the door, we hope, for chemists to think about achieving selectivity for other reactions via the design of specific heterogeneous catalysts with specific shapes."

Zaera explained that heterogeneous catalysts tend to be more practical in terms of manipulation, but are harder to control.

"Our paper shows that, thanks to new advances in nanoscience, sophisticated and highly selective heterogeneous catalysts can be made by controlling their structures," he added. "In this sense, our paper changes the paradigm of heterogeneous catalysis. These catalysts can now compete more closely with homogeneous catalysts, which industry traditionally uses for reactions that require high selectivity such as those involved in the manufacture of medicines or other fine chemicals."

Study results appeared online earlier this week in Nature Materials.

Next in their research, Zaera's lab plans to find other reactions where selectivity is needed. The researchers also plan to improve on the synthetic techniques used to make selective catalysts.

Nearly 80 percent of all chemical industrial processes use catalysts. With annual global sales of about $1500 billion, catalysts contribute approximately 35 percent of the world's gross domestic product. They are used in the manufacture of commodity, petro- and agro-chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, foods, and polymers.

Born in Venezuela, Zaera joined UCR in 1987. He is a recipient of many awards and honors, including two awards from the American Chemical Society: the Arthur W. Adamson Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Surface Chemistry; and the George A. Olah Award in Hydrocarbon or Petroleum Chemistry. He is a senior editor of The Journal of Physical Chemistry, and serves on the editorial boards of several scientific journals, including Catalysis Letters and Topics in Catalysis.

He was joined in the study by Ilkeun Lee (first author of the research paper), Ricardo Morales, and Manuel A. Albiter of UCR; and Françoise Delbecq of Université de Lyon, France.

A grant from the National Science Foundation funded the research.

####

About University of California - Riverside
The University of California, Riverside is a doctoral research university, a living laboratory for groundbreaking exploration of issues critical to Inland Southern California, the state and communities around the world. Reflecting California's diverse culture, UCR's enrollment of about 17,000 is expected to grow to 21,000 students by 2020. The campus is planning a medical school and has reached the heart of the Coachella Valley by way of the UCR Palm Desert Graduate Center. The campus has an annual statewide economic impact of more than $1 billion. To learn more, visit www.ucr.edu or call (951) UCR-NEWS.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Iqbal Pittalwala

951-827-6050

Copyright © University of California - Riverside

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

How does enzymatic pretreatment affect the nanostructure and reaction space of lignocellulosic biomass? December 18th, 2014

Silicon Valley-Based Foresight Valuation Launches STR-IP™, a New Initiative for Startups to Discover the Value of Their Intellectual Property December 18th, 2014

Iranian Scientists Use Nanotechnology to Increase Power, Energy of Supercapacitors December 18th, 2014

Iranian Researchers Produce Electrical Pieces Usable in Human Body December 18th, 2014

Chemistry

How does enzymatic pretreatment affect the nanostructure and reaction space of lignocellulosic biomass? December 18th, 2014

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Zenosense, Inc. - Hospital Collaboration - 400 Person Lung Cancer Detection Trial December 17th, 2014

SUNY Poly NanoCollege Faculty Member Selected as American Physical Society Fellow: SUNY Poly Associate Professor of Nanoscience Dr. Vincent LaBella Recognized for Significant Technological Innovations that Enable Interactive Learning December 17th, 2014

Switching to spintronics: Berkeley Lab reports on electric field switching of ferromagnetism at room temp December 17th, 2014

ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale December 17th, 2014

Discoveries

How does enzymatic pretreatment affect the nanostructure and reaction space of lignocellulosic biomass? December 18th, 2014

Iranian Scientists Use Nanotechnology to Increase Power, Energy of Supercapacitors December 18th, 2014

Iranian Researchers Produce Electrical Pieces Usable in Human Body December 18th, 2014

ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale December 17th, 2014

Announcements

How does enzymatic pretreatment affect the nanostructure and reaction space of lignocellulosic biomass? December 18th, 2014

Silicon Valley-Based Foresight Valuation Launches STR-IP™, a New Initiative for Startups to Discover the Value of Their Intellectual Property December 18th, 2014

Iranian Scientists Use Nanotechnology to Increase Power, Energy of Supercapacitors December 18th, 2014

Iranian Researchers Produce Electrical Pieces Usable in Human Body December 18th, 2014

Food/Agriculture/Supplements

First Home-Made Edible Herbal Nanodrug Presented to Pharmacies across Iran December 17th, 2014

Scientists trace nanoparticles from plants to caterpillars: Rice University study examines how nanoparticles behave in food chain December 16th, 2014

Iranian Scientists Convert Curcumin Existing in Turmeric into Edible Nanodrug December 15th, 2014

Nanoparticles Prove Effective in Removing Phosphor from Calcareous Soil December 10th, 2014

Grants/Awards/Scholarships/Gifts/Contests/Honors/Records

SUNY Poly NanoCollege Faculty Member Selected as American Physical Society Fellow: SUNY Poly Associate Professor of Nanoscience Dr. Vincent LaBella Recognized for Significant Technological Innovations that Enable Interactive Learning December 17th, 2014

“Line dancing bacteria win the 2014 Dolomite and Lab on a Chip Video Competition” December 16th, 2014

Lifeboat Foundation gives 2014 Guardian Award to Elon Musk December 16th, 2014

UCLA engineers first to detect and measure individual DNA molecules using smartphone microscope December 15th, 2014

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2014 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE