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Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. The report starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips and others are constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for role of nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.

Nanobiotechnology Applications, Markets and Companies Report

Dublin, Ireland | Posted on January 18th, 2007

Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles. In vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various nanodiagnostics that have been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and extend the present limits of molecular diagnostics.

An increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all stages of drug development - from formulations for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening. Some of nanostructures such as fullerenes are themselves drug candidates as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations. The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effective application is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.

Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative to crude surgery. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineering approaches as well.

There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and released into the environment. Research is underway to address these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready to enter market, these are expected to be in place.

Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the areas of application and the share of this market by new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There is definite indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application, technologies and geographical distribution starting with 2006. The largest expansion is expected between the years 2010 and 2015.

Profiles of 226 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with their 129 collaborations.The report is supplemented with 31 Tables, 17 figures and 550 references to the literature.

For a complete index of this report click on:

Report Index:

0.Executive Summary

1.Basics of Nanobiotechnology

Classification of nanobiotechnologies
Top-down and bottom-up approaches
Landmarks in the evolution of nanobiotechnology
Relation of nanobiotechnology to healthcare


Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems
Microarrays and nanoarrays
Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays
Protein nanoarrays
Microfluidics and nanofluidics
Nanotechnology on a chip
Microfluidic chips for nanoliter volumes
Nanogen's NanoChip
Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics
Construction of nanofluidic channels
Nanoscale flow visualization
Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces
Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces
Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip
Visualization and manipulation on nanoscale
Atomic force microscopy
Basic AFM operation
Advantages of AFM
Force sensing Integrated Readout and Active Tip
Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond
Magnetic resonance force microscopy
Scanning probe microscopy
Near-field scanning optical microscopy
Multiple single-molecule fluorescence microscopy
Nanoparticle characterization by Halo? LM10 technology
Nanoscale scanning electron microscopy
Use of SEM to reconstruct three-dimensional tissue nanostructure
Visualizing atoms with scanning electron microscopy
Photoactivated localization microscopy
Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
4Pi microscope
Principle and applications of cantilevers
Surface plasmon resonance
Quantum dots
Gold nanoparticles
Silica nanoparticles
Biomedical applications of self-assembly of nanoparticles
Paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Fluorescent nanoparticles
Production techniques for nanoparticles
Carbon nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes and DNA
Applications of nanotubes
Polymer nanofibers
DNA octahedron
Potential applications
Nanoporous silica aerogel
Bacterial structures relevant to nanobiotechnology
Bacterial spores
Nanostructures based on bacterial cell surface layers
Bacterial magnetic particles
DNA-nanoparticle conjugates
Protein-nanoparticle combination
Networks of gold nanoparticles and bacteriophage
Nanostructured silicon
Nanomaterials for biolabeling
Quantum dots as labels
Silver nanoparticle labels
Silica nanoparticles for labeling antibodies
SERS nanotags
Fluorescent lanthanide nanorods
Organic nanoparticles as biolabels
Molecular computational identification
Companies providing services and products for nanobiotechnology

3.Applications in Life Sciences

Nanotechnology and biology
NanoSystems Biology
Nanobiology and the cell
Nanotechnology-based live-cell single molecule assays
Quantum dots for cell labeling
Quantum dots for study of apoptosis
Nanostructures involved in endocytosis
Study of complex biological systems
Biosensing of cellular responses
Control of T cell signaling activity
Molecular motors
Nanomotor made of nucleic acids
phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor
Light-activated ion channel molecular machines
Application of AFM for biomolecular imaging
Future insights into biomolecular processes by AFM
3D single-molecular imaging by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging
4Pi microscopy to study DNA double-strand breaks
Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry
Applications of biomolecular computing in life sciences
Molecular electronics
Microbial nanomaterials
Use of bacteria to construct nanomachines
Bacteriophage nanoshells
Natural nanocomposites
Nanotechnology in biological research
Nanoparticles for biological research
Disguising quantum dots as proteins for cell entry
Molecular biology and nanotechnology
DNA nanotechnology
Reversibly binding of gold nanospheres to DNA strands
RNA nanotechnology
Genetically engineered proteins for nanobiotechnology
Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence
Nanoscale pH Meter
Application of nanolasers in life sciences
Study of mitochondria with nanolaser spectroscopy
Nanomanipulation by combination of AFM and other devices
Surgery on living cells using AFM with nanoneedles
Optoelectronic tweezers
Single molecule manipulation
Nanotechnology in genomic research
Separation of DNA fragments
Nanoliter-scale DNA sequencing
Single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization
Role of nanobiotechnology in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms
Role of nanotechnology in proteomics research
Study of proteins by atomic force microscopy
Multi Photon Detection
Nanoflow liquid chromatography
High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry
Protein nanocrystallography
QD-protein bioconjugate nanoassembly
Nanoproteomics for study of misfolded proteins
Dynamic reassembly of peptides
Use of nanotube electronic biosensor in proteomics
Nanometer photomasks from bacterial protein
Proteomics at single molecule level
Study of protein synthesis and single-molecule processes
Protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level
Biochips for nanoscale proteomics
Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology
Nanofilter array chip
Role of nanotechnology in study of membrane proteins
Nanoparticles for study of membrane proteins
Study of single protein interaction with cell membrane
Quantum dots to label cell surface proteins
Study of single membrane proteins at subnanometer resolution
Protein engineering on nanoscale
Nanowires for protein engineering
A nanoscale mechanism for protein engineering
Role of nanoparticles in self-assembly of proteins
Role of nanotechnology in peptide engineering
Manipulating redox systems for nanotechnology.
Self-assembling peptide scaffold technology for 3-D cell culture
Nanobiotechnology and ion channels
Aquaporin water channels
Role of nanobiotechnology in engineering ion channels
Application of nanobiotechnology in molecular electronics
Nanotechnology and bioinformatics
3D nano-map of synapse
Companies providing nanotechnology for life sciences research

4.Nanomolecular Diagnostics

Rationale of nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics
Nanoarrays for molecular diagnostics
NanoProT System
Nanofluidic/nanoarray devices to detect a single molecule of DNA
Nanoparticle protein chip
Protein nanobiochip
Self-assembling protein nanoarrays
Nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics
Gold nanoparticles
Quantum dots for molecular diagnostics
Quantum dots for detection of pathogenic microorganisms
Imaging of living tissue with quantum dots
Magnetic nanoparticles
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cell tracking
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for calcium sensing
Magnetic nanoparticles for labeling molecules
Super conducting quantum interference device
Study of living cells by superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Use of nanocrystals in immunohistochemistry
Imaging applications of nanoparticles
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles combined with MRI
Nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI
Gadonanotubes for MRI
Quantum dots for biological imaging
Gold nanorods and nanoparticles as imaging agents
Nanoparticles vs microparticles for cellular imaging
Intravital vascular imaging
Study of chromosomes by atomic force microscopy
Applications of nanopore technology for molecular diagnostics
DNA-protein and -nanoparticle conjugates
Resonance Light Scattering technology
DNA nanomachines for molecular diagnostics
Nanobarcodes technology
Nanobarcodes with striping metallic patterns
Biobarcode assay for proteins
Nanobarcode particle technology for SNP genotyping
Qdot nanobarcode for multiplexed gene expression profiling
Nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method
SNP genotyping with gold nanoparticle probes
Nanoparticle-based Up-converting Phosphor Technology
Surface-Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy
Near-infrared (NIR)-emissive polymersomes
Nanobiotechnology for detection of proteins
Captamers with proximity extension assay for proteins
Cantilevers as biosensors for molecular diagnostics
Advantages of cantilever technology for molecular recognition
Cantilevers for direct detection of active genes
Portable nanocantilever system for diagnosis
Carbon nanotube biosensors
Carbon nanotube sensors coated with ssDNA and electronic readout
Carbon nanotubes sensors wrapped with DNA and optical detection
QD-based DNA nanosensor
Ion Channel Switch biosensor technology
Electronic nanobiosensors
Electrochemical nanobiosensor
Quartz nanobalance biosensor
Viral nanosensor
PEBBLE nanosensors
rs for glucose monitoring
Microneedle-mounted biosensor
Optical biosensors
Laser nanosensors
Nanocantilever biosensors
Nanoshell biosensors
Plasmonics and SERS nanoprobes
Novel optical mRNA biosensor
Optonanogen biosensor
Surface plasmon resonance technology
Surface Enhanced Micro-optical Fluidic Systems
Nanowire biosensors
Nanowire biosensors for detection of single viruses
Nanowires for detection of genetic disorders
Nanowires biosensor for detecting biowarfare agents
Nanoscale erasable biodetectors
Future issues in the development of nanobiosensors
Applications of nanodiagnostics
Nanotechnology for detection of biomarkers
Protease-activated quantum dot probes
Nanotechnology for detection of cancer
QDs for cancer diagnosis
Gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis
Nanoatomic tubes for detection of cancer proteins
Nanoparticles for the optical imaging of tumors
Nanolaser spectroscopy for detection of cancer in single cells
Implanted magnetic sensing for cancer
Nanotechnology for point-of-care diagnostics
Nanoprobes for POC diagnosis
Carbon nanotube transistors for genetic screening
Detection of infectious agents
SEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascade for detection of bacteria
Viral detection by surface enhanced Raman scattering
Detection of single virus particles
Fluorescent QD probes for detection of respiratory viral infections
Nanodiagnostics for the battle field
Nanodiagnostics for integrating diagnostics with therapeutics
Companies involved in nanomolecular diagnostics
Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanodiagnostics

5.Nanobiotechnology in Drug Discovery & Development

Nanobiotechnology for drug discovery
Gold nanoparticles for drug discovery
Tracking drug molecules in cells
SPR with colloidal gold particles
Use of quantum dots for drug discovery
Advantages of the use of QDs for drug discovery
Drawbacks of the use of QDs for drug discovery
Quantum dot for imaging drug receptors in the brain
Ligand-conjugated nanocrystals
Lipoparticles for drug discovery
Biosensor for drug discovery with Lipoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles assays
Micelles for drug discovery
Nanolasers for drug discovery
Analysis of small molecule-protein interactions by nanowire biosensors
Cells targeting by nanoparticles with attached small molecules
Role of AFM for study of biomolecular interactions for drug discovery
Nanoscale devices for drug discovery
Nanotechnology enables drug design at cellular level
Nanobiotechnology-based drug development
Dendrimers as drugs
Polyvalent dendrimers
Fullerenes as drug candidates
Role of nanobiotechnology in the future of drug discovery
Companies using nanobiotechnology for drug discovery

6.Nanobiotechnology in Drug Delivery

Micronization versus nanonization for drug delivery
Nanoscale delivery of therapeutics
Nanobiotechnology solutions to the problems of drug delivery
Nanosuspension formulations
Ideal properties of material for drug delivery
Nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies used for drug delivery
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery
Gold nanoparticles as drug carriers
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles
Cyclodextrin nanoparticles for drug delivery
Dendrimers for drug delivery
DNA-assembled dendrimers for drug delivery
Polymer nanoparticles
Chitosan nanoparticles
Polymeric micelles
Ceramic nanoparticles
Nanocrystalline silver
Elan's NanoCrystal technology
Eurand's Biorise system
Nanoparticles bound together in spherical shapes
Encapsulating water-insoluble drugs in nanoparticles
Trojan nanoparticles
Self-assembling nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery
Therapeutic protein delivery from nanoparticle aggregates
Drug delivery using "Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates"
Liposomes incorporating fullerenes
Delivery of siRNA by nanosize liposomes
Lipid nanoparticles
Polymerized Liposomal Nanoparticle
Stabilization of phospholipid liposomes using nanoparticles
Applications of lipid nanoparticles
Lipid nanocapsules
Lipid emulsions with nanoparticles
Nanostructured organogels
Ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery
Nanosphere protein cages
Nanovesicle technology for delivery of peptides
Lipid-protein nanotubes for drug delivery
Carbon nanotubes for drug delivery
Nanobiotechnology and drug delivery devices
Coating of implants by ultrafine layers of polymers
Polymer nanocontainers
Mirocontainer delivery systems for cell therapy
Nanopore membrane in implantable titanium drug delivery device
Measuring the permeability of membranes
Nano-valves for drug delivery
Nanochips for drug delivery
Nanobiotechnology for vaccine delivery
Bacterial spores for delivery of vaccines
Nanoparticles for DNA vaccines
ProteosomesT as vaccine delivery vehicles
"Smart" nanoparticles for delivery of vaccines
Nanospheres for controlled release of viral antigens
Nanobiotechnology for antisense drug delivery
Antisense nanoparticles
Dendrimers for antisense drug delivery
Polymethacrylate nanoparticles for antisense delivery system
Nanoparticle siRNAi delivery
Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery
Nanobiotechnology for gene therapy
Nanoparticle-mediated gene therapy
Nanoparticles as non-viral vectors for CNS gene therapy
Lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery of nucleic acids
Nanoparticles linked to viral vectors for phothermal therapy
Nanoparticles for p53 gene therapy of cancer
Immunolipoplex for delivery of p53 gene
Intravenous nanoparticle formulation for delivery of FUS1 gene
Silica nanoparticles for gene delivery
Gelatin nanoparticles for gene delivery
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as non-viral vectors
Dendrimers for gene transfer
DNA-PEG complexes as nanoparticles
Compacted DNA nanoparticles
Cochleate-mediated DNA delivery
Nanorod gene therapy
Nanodel? gene vector
NanoNeedles for delivery of genetic material into cells
Nanomachines for gene delivery
Application of pulsed magnetic field and superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Nanocomposites for gene therapy
Nonionic polymeric micelles for oral gene delivery
Nanocarriers for simultaneous delivery of anticancer drugs and DNA
Nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery in cancer
Nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery in cancer
Anticancer drug particles incorporated in liposomes
Encapsulating drugs in hydrogel nanoparticles
Folate-linked nanoparticles
Lipid based nanocarriers
Micelles for drug delivery in cancer
Nanoparticle formulations of paclitaxel
Nanoparticles containing albumin and antisense oligonucleotides
Non-aggregating nanoparticles
Pegylated nanoliposomal formulation
Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles
Protosphere nanoparticle technology
Multifunctional nanoparticles for treating brain tumors
Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of drugs into the cancer cells
Antiangiogenic therapy using nanoparticles
Carbon magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Polymer nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Carbon nanotubes for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells
Fullerenes for enhancing tumor targeting by antibodies
Gold nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer
Lipoprotein nanoparticles targeted to cancer-associated receptors
Nanocell for targeted drug delivery to tumor
Nanodroplets for site-specific cancer treatment
Polymersomes for targeted cancer drug delivery
Targeted drug delivery with nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates
Dendrimers for anticancer drug delivery
Application of dendrimers in boron neutron capture therapy
Application of dendrimers in photodynamic therapy
Dendrimer-based synthetic vector for targeted cancer gene therapy
Devices for nanotechnology-based cancer therapy
Convection-enhanced delivery with nanoliposomal CPT-11
Nanocomposite devices
Nanoengineered silicon for brachytherapy
Nanoparticles combined with physical agents for tumor ablation
Carbon nanotubes for laser-induced cancer destruction
Nanoparticles and thermal ablation
Nanoparticles combined with ultrasound radiation of tumors
Nanoparticles as adjuncts to photodynamic therapy of cancer
Nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy
RNA nanotechnology for delivery of cancer therapeutics
Nanocarriers for simultaneous delivery of multiple anticancer agents
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to the CNS
Nanoparticle technology for drug delivery across BBB
Delivery across BBB using NanoDel? technology
Nanoparticles for delivery of drugs to brain tumors across BBB
NanoMed technology to mask BBB-limiting characteristics of drugs
Nanotechnology-based devices and implants for CNS
Nanotechnology-based delivery to the cardiovascular system
Liposomal nanodevices for targeted cardiovascular drug delivery
Anti-restenosis drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles
ElectroNanoSpray technology for coating drug-eluting stents
Nano-size ceramic powders for coating drug-eluting stents
Low molecular weight heparin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles
Injectable peptide nanofibers for myocardial ischemia
Nanotechnology approach to the vulnerable plaque as cause of cardiac arrest
Nanobiotechnology-based transdermal drug delivery
Delivery of nanostructured drugs from transdermal patches
NanoCyte transdermal drug delivery system
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the eye
Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the inner ear
Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the respiratory system
Nanoparticle drug formulations for spray inhalation
Pulmonary drug delivery by surface acoustic wave technology
Nasal drug delivery using nanoparticles
Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery
Future prospects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery
Nanomolecular valves for controlled drug release

7.Clinical Applications of Nanobiotechnology

Clinical nanodiagnostics
Application of nanotechnology in radiology
High-resolution ultrasound imaging using nanoparticles
Nanobiotechnology for developing stem cell-based therapies
Nanobiotechnology in tissue engineering
Nanobiotechnology for organ replacement and assisted function
Exosomes for drug-free organ transplants
Nanobiotechnology and organ-assisting devices
Nanotechnology-based human nephron filter for renal failure
Blood-compatible membranes for renal dialysis
Miniaturization in surgery
Nanotechnology for hemostasis during surgery
Minimally invasive surgery using catheters
Nanoscale laser surgery
Nanobiotechnology for early detection of cancer to improve treatment
Impact of nanotechnology-based imaging in management of cancer
Nanoparticle-MRI for tracking dendritic cells in cancer therapy
Nanoparticle-CT scan
QDs aid lymph node mapping in cancer
Nanosensor device as an aid to cancer surgery
Role of nanoparticle-based imaging in oncology clinical trials
Nanoshells for thermal ablation in cancer
Nanobody-based cancer therapy
Nanoparticles for targeting tumors
Nanoshell-based cancer therapy
Nanobomb for cancer
Combination of diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer
Targeted therapy with magnetic nanomaterials guided by antibodies
Magnetic nanoparticles for imaging as well as therapy of cancer
Gold nanorods for diagnosis plus photothermal therapy of cancer
A cancer killing device based on nanotechnology
Nanoparticles for protection against adverse effects of radiation therapy
Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer
Nanobiotechnology for diseases of the nervous system
Application of nanotechnology for neuroprotection
Nanotube-neuron electronic interface
Nanowires for monitoring brain activity
Femtolaser neurosurgery
Nanofibers as an aid to CNS regeneration by neural progenitor cells
Nanofiber brain implants
Nanoparticles as an aid to neurosurgery
Nanoscaffold for CNS repair
PEBBLEs for brain tumor therapy
Bucky balls for brain cancer
Application of nanotechnology to pain therapeutics
Cardiovascular diseases
Cardiac monitoring in sleep apnea
Detection and treatment of unstable plaques in the arteries
Nanolipoblockers for atherosclerotic arterial plaques
IGF-1 delivery by nanofibers to improve cell therapy for myocardial infarction
Tissue engineering and regeneration of the cardiovascular system
Restenosis after percutaneous coronary angioplasty
Nanotechnology-based personalized medicine for cardiovascular disorders
Monitoring for disorders of blood coagulation
Reducing reaction to orthopedic implants
Enhancing the activity of bone cells on the surface of orthopedic implants
Nanobone implants
Synthetic nanomaterials as bone implants
Carbon nanotubes as scaffolds for bone growth
Aligning nanotubes to improve artificial joints
Cartilage disorders of knee joint
Role of nanotechnology in engineering of a replacement for cartilage
Nanotechnology as an aid to arthroscopy
Scanning force arthroscope
Bonding materials
Dental caries
Nanospheres for dental hypersensitivity
Nanotechnology for prevention of neovascularization
Regeneration of the optic nerve
Use of dendrimers in ophthalmology
Nanotechnology for research in glaucoma
Nanobiotechnology and microorganisms
Nanobiotechnology and virology
Study of interaction of nanoparticles with viruses
Study of pathomechanism of viral diseases
Nanofiltration to remove viruses from plasma transfusion products
Role of nanobacteria in human diseases
Nanobacteria and kidney stone formation
Nanobacteria in cardiovascular disease
Nanotechnology-based microbicidal agents
Nanoscale bactericidal powders
Nanotubes for detection and destruction of bacteria
Carbon nanotubes for protection against anthrax attack
Nanoemulsions as microbicidal agents
Silver nanoparticle coating as prophylaxis against infection
Nanotechnology-based antiviral agents
Nanocoating for antiviral effect
Nanotechnology-based vaccines
Nanoparticles to combat biological warfare agents
Nanotechnology for wound healing
Nanotechnology-based products for skin disorders
Nanoparticles for improving targeted topical therapy of skin
Topical nanocreams for inflammatory disorders of the skin
Nanoparticle-based sun screens
Cubosomes for treating skin disorders of premature infants.
Personal care products based on nanotechnology
Nanotechnology for hair care
Nanoparticles for chemo-radioprotection
Role of nanobiotechnology in biodefense
Nanosuspension formulations for treating bioweapon-mediated diseases
Use of antidotes as nanoparticulate formulations
Removal of toxins from blood
Blood substitutes
Artificial red cells
Companies using nanotechnology for healthcare
Nanobiotechnology for public health
Nanobiotechnology and nutrition
Nanobiotechnology and food industry
Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized nutrition
Future potential of nanomedicine
US Federal funding for nanobiotechnology
Nanomedicine initiative of NIH
NIH Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines
NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer
Research in cancer nanotechnology sponsored by the NCI
Global Enterprise for Micro-Mechanics and Molecular Medicine
Nanobiotechnology research in the academic centers

8.Ethical, Safety and Regulatory issues

Ethical, legal and social implications of nanobiotechnology
Nanotechnology standards
Safety concerns about nanobiotechnology
Toxicity of nanoparticles
Testing for toxicity of nanoparticles
Quantum dot safety issues
Gold nanoparticle toxicity
Safety of carbon nanotubes in the body
Fate of nanoparticles in the human body
Pulmonary effects of nanoparticles
Blood compatibility of nanoparticles
Carbon nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation
Compatibility of lipid-based nanoparticles with blood and blood cells
Transfer of nanoparticles from mother to fetus
Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles
Nanoparticle deposits in the brain
Measures to reduce toxicity of nanoparticles
A screening strategy for the hazard identification of nanomaterials
Concluding remarks on safety issues of nanoparticles
Research into environmental effects of nanoparticles
Role of US government agencies in research on safety of nanoparticles
Work at NanoSafety Laboratories Inc UCLA
Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology
Public perceptions of the safety of nanotechnology
Evaluation of consumer exposure to nanoscale materials
Safety of nanoparticle-based cosmetics
Regulations in the European Union
Nanotechnology-based sunscreens
Cosmetic industry's white paper on nanoparticles in personal care
EPA safety requirements for silver nanoparticles
FDA regulation of nanobiotechnology products
FDA's Nanotechnology Task Force
FDA collaboration with agencies/organizations relevant to nanotechnology
Regulation of nanotechnology in the European Union
UK government policy on safety of nanoparticles
Safety recommendations of the Royal Society of UK

9.Nanobiotechnology Markets

Markets according to areas of applications
Markets for nanomedicine
Markets for in vitro nanodiagnostics
Imaging agents
Role of nanobiotechnology in drug delivery market
Nanobiotechnology in life sciences research market
Markets according to technologies
Markets for nanomaterials
Markets for biomedical nanodevices
Markets for nanosensors
Markets for nanotools
Geographical distribution of markets
Nanobiotechnology in the European Union
Nanobiotechnology in Australia
Nanobiotechnology in Asia
South Korea
Nanobiotechnology in Russia
Nanobiotechnology in the developing world
Venture capital investment in nanotechnology
Big pharma and nanotechnology
Impact of nanobiotechnology on markets for current pharmaceuticals
Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets
Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology
Collaborations of industry with academic research centers
Collaborations of pharmaceutical and nanotechnology companies
Collaboration of chemical industry and the government
Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery
Education of healthcare professionals
Education of the public
Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology

10. References


Table 1 1: Dimensions of various objects in nanoscale
Table 1 2: Classification of basic nanobiotechnologies
Table 1 3: Historical landmarks in the evolution of nanotechnology
Table 2 1: Companies with nanoliter devices and biochip technologies
Table 2 2: Applications of optical nanoscopy
Table 2 3: Applications of cantilever technology
Table 2 4: Potential applications of dendrimers in nanobiotechnology
Table 2 5: Nanobiotechnological applications of S-layers
Table 2 6: Nanomaterials for biolabeling
Table 2 7: Companies providing services and products for nanobiotechnology industry
Table 3 1: Companies that provide nanotechnologies for life sciences research
Table 4 1: Nanotechnologies with potential applications in molecular diagnostics
Table 4 2: Companies developing nanomolecular diagnostics
Table 5 1: Basic nanobiotechnologies relevant to drug discovery
Table 5 2: Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug discovery and development
Table 6 1: Comparison of features of drug delivery by micronization vs nanonization
Table 6 2: Nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies used for drug delivery
Table 6 3: Examples of application of nanoparticles for gene therapy
Table 6 4: Classification of nanobiotechnology approaches to drug delivery in cancer
Table 6 5: Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery
Table 7 1: Nanomedicine in the 21st century
Table 7 2: Companies using nanotechnology for healthcare and therapeutics
Table 7 3: Applications of nanotechnologies in food and nutrition sciences
Table 7 4: Non-commercial institutes/laboratories involved in nanobiotechnology
Table 9 1: Nanobiotechnology markets according to areas of application 2006-2015
Table 9 2: Markets for nanobiotechnology according to technologies 2006-2015
Table 9 3: Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2006-2015
Table 9 4: Drivers for the development of nanobiotechnology markets
Table 9 5: Strategies for developing markets for nanobiotechnology
Table 9 6: Cost-benefit of nanotechnology-based drug delivery


Figure 1 1: Top-down and bottom-up approaches
Figure 1 2: Relationship of nanobiotechnology to healthcare and related technologies
Figure 2 1: Schematic representation of Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN)
Figure 2 2: The core, branching and surface molecules of dendrimers
Figure 2 3: Concept of nanopore-based sequencing
Figure 4 1: Scheme of bio-barcode assay
Figure 4 2: Scheme of a novel optical mRNA biosensor
Figure 4 3: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology
Figure 6 1: A lipid nanoparticle
Figure 6 2: Lipid-protein nanotubes for drug delivery
Figure 6 3: Cochleate-mediated gene therapy
Figure 6 4: Nanodel? gene vector
Figure 7 1: Role of nanobiotechnology in personalized management of cancer
Figure 9 1: Components of the $1 trillion market for nanotechnologies in the year 2015
Figure 9 2: Nanobiotechnology markets according to applications 2006-2015
Figure 9 3: Geographical distribution of nanobiotechnology markets 2006-2015
Figure 9 4: Unmet needs in nanobiotechnology applications


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