Nanotechnology Now







Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > New test reveals purity of graphene: Rice, Osaka scientists use terahertz waves to spot contaminants

Rice and Osaka researchers have come up with a simple method to find contaminants on atom-thick graphene. By putting graphene on a layer of indium phosphide, which emits terahertz waves when excited by a laser pulse, they can measure and map changes in its electrical conductivity.Credit: Rice and Osaka universities
Rice and Osaka researchers have come up with a simple method to find contaminants on atom-thick graphene. By putting graphene on a layer of indium phosphide, which emits terahertz waves when excited by a laser pulse, they can measure and map changes in its electrical conductivity.

Credit: Rice and Osaka universities

Abstract:
Graphene may be tough, but those who handle it had better be tender. The environment surrounding the atom-thick carbon material can influence its electronic performance, according to researchers at Rice and Osaka universities who have come up with a simple way to spot contaminants.

New test reveals purity of graphene: Rice, Osaka scientists use terahertz waves to spot contaminants

Houston, TX | Posted on August 13th, 2014

Because it's so easy to accidently introduce impurities into graphene, labs led by physicists Junichiro Kono of Rice and Masayoshi Tonouchi of Osaka's Institute of Laser Engineering discovered a way to detect and identify out-of-place molecules on its surface through terahertz spectroscopy.

They expect the finding to be important to manufacturers considering the use of graphene in electronic devices.

The research was published this week by Nature's open-access online journal Scientific Reports. It was made possible by the Rice-based NanoJapan program, through which American undergraduates conduct summer research internships in Japanese labs.

Even a single molecule of a foreign substance can contaminate graphene enough to affect its electrical and optical properties, Kono said. Unfortunately (and perhaps ironically), that includes electrical contacts.

"Traditionally, in order to measure conductivity in a material, one has to attach contacts and then do electrical measurements," said Kono, whose lab specializes in terahertz research. "But our method is contact-less."

That's possible because the compound indium phosphide emits terahertz waves when excited. The researchers used it as a substrate for graphene. Hitting the combined material with femtosecond pulses from a near-infrared laser prompted the indium phosphide to emit terahertz back through the graphene. Imperfections as small as a stray oxygen molecule on the graphene were picked up by a spectrometer.

"The change in the terahertz signal due to adsorption of molecules is remarkable," Kono said. "Not just the intensity but also the waveform of emitted terahertz radiation totally and dynamically changes in response to molecular adsorption and desorption. The next step is to explore the ultimate sensitivity of this unique technique for gas sensing."

The technique can measure both the locations of contaminating molecules and changes over time. "The laser gradually removes oxygen molecules from the graphene, changing its density, and we can see that," Kono said.

The experiment involved growing pristine graphene via chemical vapor deposition and transferring it to an indium phosphide substrate. Laser pulses generated coherent bursts of terahertz radiation through a built-in surface electric field of the indium phosphide substrate that changed due to charge transfer between the graphene and the contaminating molecules. The terahertz wave, when visualized, reflected the change.

The experimental results are a warning for electronics manufacturers. "For any future device designs using graphene, we have to take into account the influence of the surroundings," said Kono. Graphene in a vacuum or sandwiched between noncontaminating layers would probably be stable, but exposure to air would contaminate it, he said.

The Rice and Osaka labs are continuing to collaborate on a project to measure the terahertz conductivity of graphene on various substrates, he said.

The paper's authors include Rice alumna Mika Tabata, who conducted research as a 2012 NanoJapan participant in the Tonouchi lab, and graduate student Minjie Wang; associate professors Iwao Kawayama and Hironaru Murakami and graduate students Yuki Sano and Khandoker Abu Salek of Osaka; and Robert Vajtai, a senior faculty fellow, and Pulickel Ajayan, the Benjamin M. and Mary Greenwood Anderson Professor in Engineering, professor of materials science and nanoengineering and of chemistry, and chair of the Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, both at Rice.

The National Science Foundation (NSF); the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan and the Murata Science Foundation supported the research. NanoJapan is funded by the NSF's Partnerships for International Research and Education program.

####

About Rice University
Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,920 undergraduates and 2,567 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is just over 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is highly ranked for best quality of life by the Princeton Review and for best value among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance.

Follow Rice News and Media Relations via Twitter @RiceUNews

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
David Ruth
713-348-6327


Mike Williams
713-348-6728

Copyright © Rice University

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

Read the abstract at:

Junichiro Kono Laboratory:

Tonouchi Lab:

Ajayan Research Group:

Related News Press

News and information

New method allows for greater variation in band gap tunability: The method can change a material's electronic band gap by up to 200 percent January 31st, 2015

Evidence mounts for quantum criticality theory: Findings bolster theory that quantum fluctuations drive strange electronic phenomena January 30th, 2015

Everything You Need To Know About Nanopesticides January 30th, 2015

DNA nanoswitches reveal how life's molecules connect: An accessible new way to study molecular interactions could lower cost and time associated with discovering new drugs January 30th, 2015

Graphene

Discovery Channel taps Angstron Materials for segment featuring graphene advances January 29th, 2015

Creating new materials with quantum effects for electronics January 29th, 2015

Graphenea sales more than double in 2014 January 29th, 2015

Researchers Make Magnetic Graphene: UC Riverside research could lead to new multi-functional electronic devices January 27th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Evidence mounts for quantum criticality theory: Findings bolster theory that quantum fluctuations drive strange electronic phenomena January 30th, 2015

Nanoscale Mirrored Cavities Amplify, Connect Quantum Memories: Advance could lead to quantum computing and the secure transfer of information over long-distance fiber optic networks January 28th, 2015

Detecting chemical weapons with a color-changing film January 28th, 2015

'Bulletproof' battery: Kevlar membrane for safer, thinner lithium rechargeables January 28th, 2015

Chip Technology

Creating new materials with quantum effects for electronics January 29th, 2015

Advantest to Exhibit at SEMICON Korea in Seoul, South Korea February 4-6 Showcasing Broad Portfolio of Semiconductor Products, Technologies and Solutions January 29th, 2015

Researchers Make Magnetic Graphene: UC Riverside research could lead to new multi-functional electronic devices January 27th, 2015

Nanometrics to Present at the Stifel 2015 Technology, Internet and Media Conference January 27th, 2015

Discoveries

New method allows for greater variation in band gap tunability: The method can change a material's electronic band gap by up to 200 percent January 31st, 2015

Evidence mounts for quantum criticality theory: Findings bolster theory that quantum fluctuations drive strange electronic phenomena January 30th, 2015

Everything You Need To Know About Nanopesticides January 30th, 2015

DNA nanoswitches reveal how life's molecules connect: An accessible new way to study molecular interactions could lower cost and time associated with discovering new drugs January 30th, 2015

Announcements

New method allows for greater variation in band gap tunability: The method can change a material's electronic band gap by up to 200 percent January 31st, 2015

Evidence mounts for quantum criticality theory: Findings bolster theory that quantum fluctuations drive strange electronic phenomena January 30th, 2015

Everything You Need To Know About Nanopesticides January 30th, 2015

DNA nanoswitches reveal how life's molecules connect: An accessible new way to study molecular interactions could lower cost and time associated with discovering new drugs January 30th, 2015

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

New method allows for greater variation in band gap tunability: The method can change a material's electronic band gap by up to 200 percent January 31st, 2015

DNA nanoswitches reveal how life's molecules connect: An accessible new way to study molecular interactions could lower cost and time associated with discovering new drugs January 30th, 2015

Crystal light: New light-converting materials point to cheaper, more efficient solar power: University of Toronto engineers study first single crystal perovskites for new solar cell and LED applications January 30th, 2015

Iranian Scientists Use MOFs to Eliminate Dye Pollutants January 29th, 2015

Research partnerships

Evidence mounts for quantum criticality theory: Findings bolster theory that quantum fluctuations drive strange electronic phenomena January 30th, 2015

DNA nanoswitches reveal how life's molecules connect: An accessible new way to study molecular interactions could lower cost and time associated with discovering new drugs January 30th, 2015

Made-in-Singapore rapid test kit detects dengue antibodies from saliva: IBN's MedTech innovation simplifies diagnosis of infectious diseases January 29th, 2015

Carbon nanoballs can greatly contribute to sustainable energy supply January 27th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2015 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE