Nanotechnology Now







Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Advance brings 'hyperbolic metamaterials' closer to reality

"Hyperbolic metamaterials" could bring optical advances including powerful microscopes, quantum computers and high-performance solar cells. The graphic at left depicts a metamaterial's "hyperbolic dispersion" of light. At center is a high-resolution transmission electron microscope image showing the interface of titanium nitride and aluminum scandium nitride in a "superlattice" that is promising for potential applications. At right are two images created using a method called fast Fourier transform to see individual layers in the material. Purdue University image
"Hyperbolic metamaterials" could bring optical advances including powerful microscopes, quantum computers and high-performance solar cells. The graphic at left depicts a metamaterial's "hyperbolic dispersion" of light. At center is a high-resolution transmission electron microscope image showing the interface of titanium nitride and aluminum scandium nitride in a "superlattice" that is promising for potential applications. At right are two images created using a method called fast Fourier transform to see individual layers in the material.

Purdue University image

Abstract:
Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials

Gururaj V. Naik,1 Bivas Saha,2 Jing Liu,3 Sammy M. Saber,2 Eric Stach,2 Joseph MK Irudayaraj,3 Timothy D. Sands,1,2 Vladimir M. Shalaev1 and Alexandra Boltasseva*,1,4

1 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue

University

2 School of Materials Engineering, and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University

3 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, and Bindley Bioscience Center,

Purdue University

4 DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: *Alexandra Boltasseva

Titanium nitride (TiN) is a plasmonic material having optical properties resembling gold. Unlike gold however, TiN is CMOS-compatible, mechanically strong, and thermally stable at higher temperatures. Additionally, TiN can be grown in smooth, ultra-thin crystalline films, which are useful in constructing many plasmonic and metamaterial devices including hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). Hyperbolic metamaterials have been shown to exhibit exotic optical properties, including extremely high broadband photonic densities of states (PDOS), which are useful in quantum plasmonics applications. However, the extent to which the exotic properties of HMMs can be realized has been seriously limited by fabrication constraints and material properties. Here, we address these issues by realizing an epitaxial superlattice as an HMM. The superlattice consists of ultra-smooth layers as thin as 5 nm and exhibits sharp interfaces, which are essential for high-quality HMM devices. Our study reveals that such a TiN-based superlattice HMM provides a higher PDOS enhancement than gold- or silver-based HMMs. Given the advantages of TiN as a CMOS compatible plasmonic material, this demonstration brings a paradigm shift to the field of metamaterials similar to the way heterostructures did to the field of solid-state light sources.

Advance brings 'hyperbolic metamaterials' closer to reality

West Lafayette, IN | Posted on May 15th, 2014

Researchers have taken a step toward practical applications for "hyperbolic metamaterials," ultra-thin crystalline films that could bring optical advances including powerful microscopes, quantum computers and high-performance solar cells.

New developments are reminiscent of advances that ushered in silicon chip technology, said Alexandra Boltasseva, a Purdue University associate professor of electrical and computer engineering.

Optical metamaterials harness clouds of electrons called surface plasmons to manipulate and control light. However, some of the plasmonic components under development rely on the use of metals such as gold and silver, which are incompatible with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process used to construct integrated circuits and do not transmit light efficiently.

Now researchers have shown how to create "superlattice" crystals from layers of the metal titanium nitride and aluminum scandium nitride, a dielectric, or insulator. Superlattices are crystals that can be grown continuously by adding new layers, a requirement for practical application.

"This work is a very important step in terms of fundamental contributions in materials science and optics as well as paving the way to some interesting applications," Boltasseva said. "We believe this demonstration brings a paradigm shift to the field of metamaterials similar to developments that led to dramatic advances in silicon technology."

Research findings are detailed in a paper appearing this week in the online Early Edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Researchers created the superlattices using a method called epitaxy, "growing" the layers inside a vacuum chamber with a technique known as magnetron sputtering. It is difficult to use the technique to create structures that have sharply defined, ultra-thin and ultra-smooth layers of two different materials.

"This is one of the first reports of a metal-dielectric epitaxial superlattice," said Purdue doctoral student Bivas Saha, co-lead author of the PNAS paper with Gururaj V. Naik, a former Purdue doctoral student and now a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University.

The list of possible applications for metamaterials includes a "planar hyperlens" that could make optical microscopes 10 times more powerful and able to see objects as small as DNA, advanced sensors, more efficient solar collectors, and quantum computing.

"Plasmonic and metamaterial devices require good material building blocks, both plasmonic and dielectric, in order to be useful in any real-world application," Boltasseva said. "Here, we develop both plasmonic and dielectric materials that can be grown epitaxially into ultra-thin and ultra-smooth layers with sharp interfaces."

Metamaterials have engineered surfaces that contain features, patterns or elements, such as tiny antennas or alternating layers of nitrides that enable unprecedented control of light. Under development for about 15 years, the metamaterials owe their unusual potential to precision design on the scale of nanometers.

The PNAS paper was authored by Naik; Saha; doctoral students Jing Liu and Sammy M. Saber; Eric Stach, a researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Joseph Irudayaraj, a professor in Purdue's Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering; Timothy D. Sands, executive vice president for academic affairs and provost and Basil S. Turner Professor of Engineering in the Schools of Materials Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering; Vladimir M. Shalaev, scientific director of nanophotonics at Purdue's Birck Nanotechnology Center and a distinguished professor of electrical and computer engineering; and Boltasseva.

"This work results from a unique collaboration between nanophotonics and materials science," Boltasseva said.

The hyperbolic metamaterial behaves as a metal when light is passing through it in one direction and like a dielectric in the perpendicular direction. This "extreme anisotropy" leads to "hyperbolic dispersion" of light and the ability to extract many more photons from devices than otherwise possible, resulting in high performance.

The layers of titanium nitride and aluminum scandium nitride used in this study are each about 5 to 20 nanometers thick. However, researchers have demonstrated that such superlattices can also be developed where the layers could be as thin as 2 nanometers, a tiny dimension only about eight atoms thick.

"People have tried for more than 50 years to combine metals and semiconductors with atomic-scale precision to build superlattices," Saha said. "However, this is one of the first demonstrations of achieving that step. The fascinating optical properties we see here are a manifestation of extraordinary structural control that we have achieved."

The feat is possible by choosing a metal and dielectric with compatible crystal structures, enabling the layers to grow together as a superlattice. The researchers alloyed aluminum nitride with scandium nitride, meaning the aluminum nitride is impregnated with scandium atoms to alter the material's crystal lattice to match titanium nitride's.

"The possibility of growing both metal and dielectric material components as a whole epitaxial system is indispensable for realizing high-performance metamaterials," Saha said. "One of the stumbling blocks is the fact that common dielectrics such as silica, alumina and other oxides cannot be used in combination with metallic components such as metal nitrides because the deposition processes are not compatible with each other."

Both of the materials should possess the same or compatible crystal structures.

"In general, a lattice mismatch of less than 5 percent is necessary for growing epitaxial quality films," he said.

A U.S. patent application has been filed through the Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization.

The material has been shown to work in a broad spectrum from near-infrared to visible light, potentially promising a wide array of applications.

"That's a novel part of this work - that we can create a superlattice metamaterial showing hyperbolic dispersion in the visible spectrum range," Boltasseva said.

The near-infrared is essential for telecommunications and optical communications, and visible light is important for sensors, microscopes and efficient solid-state light sources.

"Most interesting is the realm of quantum information technology," she said.

Computers based on quantum physics would have quantum bits, or "qubits," that exist in both the on and off states simultaneously, dramatically increasing the computer's power and memory. Quantum computers would take advantage of a phenomenon described by quantum theory called "entanglement." Instead of only the states of one and zero used in conventional computer processing, there are many possible "entangled quantum states" in between one and zero, increasing the capacity to process information.

The research has been funded in part by the U.S. Army Research Office and the National Science Foundation.

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Writer:
Emil Venere

765-494-4709

Sources:
Alexandra Boltasseva
765-494-0301


Bivas Saha

Copyright © Purdue University

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

New Hopes for Treatment of Intestine Cancer by Edible Nanodrug March 2nd, 2015

Imec, Holst Centre and Renesas Present World’s Lowest Power 2.4GHz Radio Chip for Bluetooth Low Energy March 1st, 2015

Imec, Murata, and Huawei Introduce Breakthrough Solution for TX-to-RX Isolation in Reconfigurable, Multiband Front-End Modules for Mobile Phones: Electrical-Balance Duplexers Pave the Way to Integrated Solution for TX-to-RX Isolation March 1st, 2015

Imec Demonstrates Compact Wavelength-Division Multiplexing CMOS Silicon Photonics Transceiver March 1st, 2015

Imaging

Renishaw and Bruker team up for a workshop on TERS and co-localised AFM Raman February 26th, 2015

Real-time observation of bond formation by using femtosecond X-ray liquidography February 26th, 2015

Bruker-Sponsored Sixth AFM BioMed Conference Highlights Increasing Impact of AFM in Biological Applications February 26th, 2015

Dendrite eraser: New electrolyte rids batteries of short-circuiting fibers: Solution enables a battery with both high efficiency & current density February 24th, 2015

Magnetic nanoparticles could stop blood clot-caused strokes February 23rd, 2015

Thin films

Researchers enable solar cells to use more sunlight February 25th, 2015

Detecting defects at the nanoscale will profit solar panel production: Researcher Mohamed Elrawemi develops new technologies for defects in thin films, vital in products as printed electronics and solar panels February 24th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

First detailed microscopy evidence of bacteria at the lower size limit of life: Berkeley Lab research provides comprehensive description of ultra-small bacteria February 28th, 2015

Warming up the world of superconductors: Clusters of aluminum metal atoms become superconductive at surprisingly high temperatures February 25th, 2015

SUNY Poly CNSE Researchers and Corporate Partners to Present Forty Papers at Globally Recognized Lithography Conference: SUNY Poly CNSE Research Group Awarded Both ‘Best Research Paper’ and ‘Best Research Poster’ at SPIE Advanced Lithography 2015 forum February 25th, 2015

European roadmap for graphene science and technology published February 25th, 2015

Quantum Computing

Waterloo invention advances quantum computing research: New device, which will be used in labs around the world to develop quantum technologies, produces fragile entangled photons in a more efficient way February 16th, 2015

Quantum research past, present and future for discussion at AAAS February 16th, 2015

Exotic states materialize with supercomputers February 12th, 2015

Analogue quantum computers: Still wishful thinking? Many challenges lie ahead before quantum annealing, the analogue version of quantum computation, contributes to solve combinatorial optimisation problems February 12th, 2015

Discoveries

New Hopes for Treatment of Intestine Cancer by Edible Nanodrug March 2nd, 2015

Imec, Murata, and Huawei Introduce Breakthrough Solution for TX-to-RX Isolation in Reconfigurable, Multiband Front-End Modules for Mobile Phones: Electrical-Balance Duplexers Pave the Way to Integrated Solution for TX-to-RX Isolation March 1st, 2015

Imec Demonstrates Compact Wavelength-Division Multiplexing CMOS Silicon Photonics Transceiver March 1st, 2015

Graphene Shows Promise In Eradication Of Stem Cancer Cells March 1st, 2015

Materials/Metamaterials

Moving molecule writes letters: Caging of molecules allows investigation of equilibrium thermodynamics February 27th, 2015

Graphene shows potential as novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy: University of Manchester scientists have used graphene to target and neutralise cancer stem cells while not harming other cells February 26th, 2015

In quest for better lithium-air batteries, chemists boost carbon's stability: Nanoparticle coatings improve stability, cyclability of '3DOm' carbon February 25th, 2015

Learning by eye: Silicon micro-funnels increase the efficiency of solar cells February 25th, 2015

Announcements

New Hopes for Treatment of Intestine Cancer by Edible Nanodrug March 2nd, 2015

Imec Demonstrates Compact Wavelength-Division Multiplexing CMOS Silicon Photonics Transceiver March 1st, 2015

onic Present breakthrough in CMOS-based Transceivers for mm-Wave Radar Systems March 1st, 2015

Graphene Shows Promise In Eradication Of Stem Cancer Cells March 1st, 2015

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

New Hopes for Treatment of Intestine Cancer by Edible Nanodrug March 2nd, 2015

Novel Method to Determine Optical Purity of Drug Components March 1st, 2015

Moving molecule writes letters: Caging of molecules allows investigation of equilibrium thermodynamics February 27th, 2015

Untangling DNA with a droplet of water, a pipet and a polymer: With the 'rolling droplet technique,' a DNA-injected water droplet rolls like a ball over a platelet, sticking the DNA to the plate surface February 27th, 2015

Tools

Mass spectrometers with optimised hydrogen pumping March 1st, 2015

Renishaw and Bruker team up for a workshop on TERS and co-localised AFM Raman February 26th, 2015

Maximum Precision in 3D Printing: New complete solution makes additive manufacturing standard for microfabrication February 26th, 2015

Real-time observation of bond formation by using femtosecond X-ray liquidography February 26th, 2015

Patents/IP/Tech Transfer/Licensing

onic Present breakthrough in CMOS-based Transceivers for mm-Wave Radar Systems March 1st, 2015

New Paper-like Material Could Boost Electric Vehicle Batteries: Researchers create silicon nanofibers 100 times thinner than human hair for potential applications in batteries for electric cars and personal electronics February 20th, 2015

Nanotech Discoveries Move from Lab to Marketplace with Lintec Deal: Licensing Partnership Brings Together University Technology, New Richardson-Based Facility Directed by Alumni February 9th, 2015

Graphenea granted patent on graphene transfer February 9th, 2015

Military

Simulating superconducting materials with ultracold atoms: Rice physicists build superconductor analog, observe antiferromagnetic order February 23rd, 2015

Perfect colors, captured with one ultra-thin lens: No need for color correction -- Harvard physicists' flat optics, using nanotechnology, get it right the first time February 19th, 2015

Penn researchers develop new technique for making molybdenum disulfide: Extra control over monolayer material with advantages over graphene February 19th, 2015

New nanogel for drug delivery: Self-healing gel can be injected into the body and act as a long-term drug depot February 19th, 2015

Energy

In quest for better lithium-air batteries, chemists boost carbon's stability: Nanoparticle coatings improve stability, cyclability of '3DOm' carbon February 25th, 2015

New nanowire structure absorbs light efficiently: Dual-type nanowire arrays can be used in applications such as LEDs and solar cells February 25th, 2015

Learning by eye: Silicon micro-funnels increase the efficiency of solar cells February 25th, 2015

Magnetic nanoparticles enhance performance of solar cells X-ray study points the way to higher energy yields February 25th, 2015

Photonics/Optics/Lasers

Imec Demonstrates Compact Wavelength-Division Multiplexing CMOS Silicon Photonics Transceiver March 1st, 2015

Leti to Offer Updates on Silicon Photonics Successes at OFC in LA February 27th, 2015

Rice's Stephan Link honored for nanoscience research: The Welch Foundation honors ‘rising star’ with $100,000 Hackerman Award February 26th, 2015

Maximum Precision in 3D Printing: New complete solution makes additive manufacturing standard for microfabrication February 26th, 2015

Solar/Photovoltaic

New nanowire structure absorbs light efficiently: Dual-type nanowire arrays can be used in applications such as LEDs and solar cells February 25th, 2015

Learning by eye: Silicon micro-funnels increase the efficiency of solar cells February 25th, 2015

Magnetic nanoparticles enhance performance of solar cells X-ray study points the way to higher energy yields February 25th, 2015

Researchers enable solar cells to use more sunlight February 25th, 2015

Quantum nanoscience

Quantum many-body systems on the way back to equilibrium: Advances in experimental and theoretical physics enable a deeper understanding of the dynamics and properties of quantum many-body systems February 25th, 2015

Quantum research past, present and future for discussion at AAAS February 16th, 2015

Exotic states materialize with supercomputers February 12th, 2015

Graphene displays clear prospects for flexible electronics February 2nd, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2015 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE