Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Researchers develop new method to control nanoscale diamond sensors: Technique allows tiny sensors to monitor small changes in magnetic fields, such as when neurons transmit electrical signals.

A single nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) center in diamond (right, inset), optically initialized and readout by confocal microscopy, is manipulated with coherent control sequences (red line) of microwave pulses. This measures the arbitrary profile of time-varying magnetic fields radiated by biological sources (or by artificial sources in the researchers' proof-of-principle experiment).
Image: Paola Cappellaro courtesy the researchers
A single nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) center in diamond (right, inset), optically initialized and readout by confocal microscopy, is manipulated with coherent control sequences (red line) of microwave pulses. This measures the arbitrary profile of time-varying magnetic fields radiated by biological sources (or by artificial sources in the researchers' proof-of-principle experiment).

Image: Paola Cappellaro courtesy the researchers

Abstract:
Diamonds may be a girl's best friend, but they could also one day help us understand how the brain processes information, thanks to a new sensing technique developed at MIT.

Researchers develop new method to control nanoscale diamond sensors: Technique allows tiny sensors to monitor small changes in magnetic fields, such as when neurons transmit electrical signals.

Cambridge, MA | Posted on January 24th, 2014

A team in MIT's Quantum Engineering Group has developed a new method to control nanoscale diamond sensors, which are capable of measuring even very weak magnetic fields. The researchers present their work this week in the journal Nature Communications.

The new control technique allows the tiny sensors to monitor how these magnetic fields change over time, such as when neurons in the brain transmit electrical signals to each other. It could also enable researchers to more precisely measure the magnetic fields produced by novel materials such as the metamaterials used to make superlenses and "invisibility cloaks."

In 2008 a team of researchers from MIT, Harvard University, and other institutions first revealed that nanoscale defects inside diamonds could be used as magnetic sensors.

The naturally occurring defects, known as nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers, are sensitive to external magnetic fields, much like compasses, says Paola Cappellaro, the Esther and Harold Edgerton Associate Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering (NSE) at MIT.

Defects inside diamonds are also known as color centers, Cappellaro says, as they give the gemstones a particular hue: "So if you ever see a nice diamond that is blue or pink, the color is due to the fact that there are defects in the diamond."

The N-V center defect consists of a nitrogen atom in place of a carbon atom and next to a vacancy — or hollow — within the diamond's lattice structure. Many such defects within a diamond would give the gemstone a pink color, and when illuminated with light they emit a red light, Cappellaro says.

To develop the new method of controlling these sensors, Cappellaro's team first probed the diamond with green laser light until they detected a red light being emitted, which told them exactly where the defect was located.

They then applied a microwave field to the nanoscale sensor, to manipulate the electron spin of the N-V center. This alters the intensity of light emitted by the defect, to a degree that depends not only on the microwave field but also on any external magnetic fields present.

To measure external magnetic fields and how they change over time, the researchers targeted the nanoscale sensor with a microwave pulse, which switched the direction of the N-V center's electron spin, says team member and NSE graduate student Alexandre Cooper. By applying different series of these pulses, acting as filters — each of which switched the direction of the electron spin a different number of times — the team was able to efficiently collect information about the external magnetic field.

They then applied signal-processing techniques to interpret this information and used it to reconstruct the entire magnetic field. "So we can reconstruct the whole dynamics of this external magnetic field, which gives you more information about the underlying phenomena that is creating the magnetic field itself," Cappellaro says.

The team used a square of diamond three millimeters in diameter as their sample, but it is possible to use sensors that are only tens of nanometers in size. The diamond sensors can be used at room temperature, and since they consist entirely of carbon, they could be injected into living cells without causing them any harm, Cappellaro says.

One possibility would be to grow neurons on top of the diamond sensor, to allow it to measure the magnetic fields created by the "action potential," or signal, they produce and then transmit to other nerves.

Previously, researchers have used electrodes inside the brain to "poke" a neuron and measure the electric field produced. However, this is a very invasive technique, Cappellaro says. "You don't know if the neuron is still behaving as it would have if you hadn't done anything," she says.

Instead, the diamond sensor could measure the magnetic field noninvasively. "We could have an array of these defect centers to probe different locations on the neuron, and then you would know how the signal propagates from one position to another one in time," Cappellaro says.

In experiments to demonstrate their sensor, the team used a waveguide as an artificial neuron and applied an external magnetic field. When they placed the diamond sensor on the waveguide, they were able to accurately reconstruct the magnetic field. Mikhail Lukin, a professor of physics at Harvard, says the work demonstrates very nicely the ability to reconstruct time-dependent profiles of weak magnetic fields using a novel magnetic sensor based on quantum manipulation of defects in diamond.

"Someday techniques demonstrated in this work may enable us to do real-time sensing of brain activity and to learn how they work," says Lukin, who was not involved in this research. "Potential far-reaching implications may include detection and eventual treatment of brain diseases, although much work remains to be done to show if this actually can be done," he adds.

####

For more information, please click here

Copyright © Massachusetts Institute of Technology

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

New Method Uses DNA, Nanoparticles and Top-Down Lithography to Make Optically Active Structures: Technique could lead to new classes of materials that can bend light, such as for those used in cloaking devices January 18th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Announces Pricing of Underwritten Public Offering of Common Stock January 18th, 2018

Leti to Demo New Curving Technology at Photonics West that Improves Performance of Optical Components January 18th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Announces Proposed Underwritten Offering of Common Stock January 17th, 2018

Brain-Computer Interfaces

A firefly's flash inspires new nanolaser light July 18th, 2017

Gold & Graphene Make Brain Probes More Sensitive Read more from Asian Scientist Magazine at: https://www.asianscientist.com/2017/05/tech/graphene-gold-brain-probe/ May 3rd, 2017

'Neuron-reading' nanowires could accelerate development of drugs for neurological diseases April 12th, 2017

Leti demonstrates world’s first alpha-wave measuring system for consumers at CES Unveiled and at its booth: RELAX Headgear Provides New Dimension to Wellness Management In Every Area of Life, From Working to Studying to Exercising or Just Sitting December 13th, 2016

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

New Method Uses DNA, Nanoparticles and Top-Down Lithography to Make Optically Active Structures: Technique could lead to new classes of materials that can bend light, such as for those used in cloaking devices January 18th, 2018

Ultra-thin memory storage device paves way for more powerful computing January 17th, 2018

'Gyroscope' molecules form crystal that's both solid and full of motion: New type of molecular machine designed by UCLA researchers could have wide-ranging applications in technology and science January 16th, 2018

The nanoscopic structure that locks up our genes January 16th, 2018

Nanomedicine

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Announces Pricing of Underwritten Public Offering of Common Stock January 18th, 2018

Leti to Demo New Curving Technology at Photonics West that Improves Performance of Optical Components January 18th, 2018

Ultra-thin optical fibers offer new way to 3-D print microstructures: Novel approach lays groundwork for using 3-D printing to repair tissue in the body January 17th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Announces Proposed Underwritten Offering of Common Stock January 17th, 2018

Sensors

Leti to Demo New Curving Technology at Photonics West that Improves Performance of Optical Components January 18th, 2018

NRL improves optical efficiency in nanophotonic devices January 4th, 2018

'Quantum material' has shark-like ability to detect small electrical signals December 20th, 2017

Record high photoconductivity for new metal-organic framework material December 15th, 2017

Discoveries

New Method Uses DNA, Nanoparticles and Top-Down Lithography to Make Optically Active Structures: Technique could lead to new classes of materials that can bend light, such as for those used in cloaking devices January 18th, 2018

Nanowrinkles could save billions in shipping and aquaculture Surfaces inspired by carnivorous plants delay degradation by marine fouling January 17th, 2018

Ultrathin black phosphorus for solar-driven hydrogen economy: Osaka University researchers use sunlight to make hydrogen with a new nanostructured catalyst based on nanosheets of black phosphorus and bismuth vanadate January 17th, 2018

Ultra-thin optical fibers offer new way to 3-D print microstructures: Novel approach lays groundwork for using 3-D printing to repair tissue in the body January 17th, 2018

Announcements

New Method Uses DNA, Nanoparticles and Top-Down Lithography to Make Optically Active Structures: Technique could lead to new classes of materials that can bend light, such as for those used in cloaking devices January 18th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Announces Pricing of Underwritten Public Offering of Common Stock January 18th, 2018

Leti to Demo New Curving Technology at Photonics West that Improves Performance of Optical Components January 18th, 2018

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals Announces Proposed Underwritten Offering of Common Stock January 17th, 2018

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

Nanowrinkles could save billions in shipping and aquaculture Surfaces inspired by carnivorous plants delay degradation by marine fouling January 17th, 2018

Ultrathin black phosphorus for solar-driven hydrogen economy: Osaka University researchers use sunlight to make hydrogen with a new nanostructured catalyst based on nanosheets of black phosphorus and bismuth vanadate January 17th, 2018

Ultra-thin optical fibers offer new way to 3-D print microstructures: Novel approach lays groundwork for using 3-D printing to repair tissue in the body January 17th, 2018

Ultra-thin memory storage device paves way for more powerful computing January 17th, 2018

Quantum nanoscience

New oxide and semiconductor combination builds new device potential: Researchers integrated oxide two-dimensional electron gases with gallium arsenide and paved the way toward new opto-electrical devices January 10th, 2018

Columbia engineers create artificial graphene in a nanofabricated semiconductor structure: Researchers are the first to observe the electronic structure of graphene in an engineered semiconductor; finding could lead to progress in advanced optoelectronics and data processing December 13th, 2017

Enhancing the quantum sensing capabilities of diamond: Shooting electrons at diamonds can introduce quantum sensors into them November 24th, 2017

Quantum optics allows us to abandon expensive lasers in spectroscopy: Lomonosov Moscow State University scientists have invented a new method of spectroscopy November 21st, 2017

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project