Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Mysterious catalyst explained: How tiny gold particles aid the production of plastic components

Gold/titanium dioxide catalyst in action: At the interface between a gold particle (Au, gold) and the titanium dioxide surface (TiO2, red and light blue), an oxygen molecule (O2, dark blue spheres) is activated by a charge transfer and becomes catalytically active. Thus, methanol (CH3OH) can be efficiently and selectively oxidized to formaldehyde (CH2O); water (H2O) is produced as well. The researchers made the charge transfer visible using vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed carbon monoxide (CO; middle of the figure): In the presence of oxygen, a new band (CO@Au(delta+)O2(delta-) appears in the spectrum.
Gold/titanium dioxide catalyst in action: At the interface between a gold particle (Au, gold) and the titanium dioxide surface (TiO2, red and light blue), an oxygen molecule (O2, dark blue spheres) is activated by a charge transfer and becomes catalytically active. Thus, methanol (CH3OH) can be efficiently and selectively oxidized to formaldehyde (CH2O); water (H2O) is produced as well. The researchers made the charge transfer visible using vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed carbon monoxide (CO; middle of the figure): In the presence of oxygen, a new band (CO@Au(delta+)O2(delta-) appears in the spectrum.

Abstract:
From methanol to formaldehyde - this reaction is the starting point for the synthesis of many everyday plastics. Using catalysts made of gold particles, formaldehyde could be produced without the environmentally hazardous waste generated in conventional methods. Just how the mysterious gold catalyst works has been found out by theoretical and experimental researchers at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum in a cooperation project. In the international edition of the journal "Angewandte Chemie" they report in detail on what happens on the gold surface during the chemical reaction.

Mysterious catalyst explained: How tiny gold particles aid the production of plastic components

Bochum, Germany | Posted on April 30th, 2013

"Gold should not really be suitable as a catalyst."

"That nanoparticles of gold actually selectively transform methanol into formaldehyde is remarkable", says Prof. Dr. Martin Muhler of the Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry at the RUB. "As a stable precious metal, gold should not really be suitable as a catalyst." However, gold particles of a few nanometres in size, anchored to a titanium dioxide surface, fulfil their purpose. You only need oxygen to set the reaction in motion, and the only waste product is water. How this is achieved is examined by Muhler's team together with the groups of Prof. Dr. Dominik Marx of the Chair of Theoretical Chemistry and Dr. Yuemin Wang of the Department of Physical Chemistry I.

Oxygen binds at the interface between gold and titanium dioxide

The chemists identified the active site of the catalyst, i.e. the point at which the oxygen and methanol bind and are converted to water and formaldehyde. Elaborate calculations by Dr. Matteo Farnesi Camellone showed that oxygen binds at the interface between titanium dioxide and gold particles. Since titanium dioxide is a semiconductor, and thus electrically conductive, a charge exchange between oxygen, gold particles and titanium dioxide is possible here. Oxygen vacancies in the titanium dioxide further favour this charge transfer. Electrons transitionally transfer from the catalyst to the oxygen molecule. This allows the methanol to bind to the gold particles. In several further reaction steps, formaldehyde and water form. The solid, which consists of gold and titanium dioxide, is in the same state at the end of the reaction cycle as at the beginning, and is thus not consumed.

Experiment and theory: only the combination makes it possible

The RUB team clarified the individual reaction steps in detail. The researchers used computer simulations, so-called density functional calculations, and various spectroscopic techniques, namely, vibrational spectroscopy (HREELS method) and thermal desorption spectroscopy. In his model calculations, Dr. Farnesi quantified the charge exchange taking place during catalysis. Extremely sensitive vibrational spectroscopic measurements by Dr. Wang's group confirmed the consequences of the charge transfer in the real system. "Through an intensive cooperation between theory and experiment, we have been able to qualitatively and quantitatively explore the active site and the entire reaction mechanism of this complex catalyst", stresses Prof. Marx.

###

Funding

The study originates from the Collaborative Research Centre 558 "Metal-substrate interactions in heterogeneous catalysis", which ended mid-2012. "The results are, so to speak, the crowning glory of the SFB works on alcohol oxidation", Muhler sums up. The project was further actively funded by the Cluster of Excellence "Ruhr Explores Solvation" RESOLV (EXC 1069), approved by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in 2012, in which researchers investigate the selective oxidation of alcohols in the liquid phase.

Bibliographic record

M. Farnesi Camellone, J. Zhao, L. Jin, Y. Wang, M. Muhler, D. Marx (2013): Molecular understanding of reactivity and selectivity for methanol oxidation at the Au/TiO2 interface, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201301868

Editor: Dr. Julia Weiler

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Prof. Dr. Martin Muhler
Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Ruhr-Universität
44780 Bochum, Germany
Tel. +49-234-32-28754
E-mail:

Prof. Dr. Dominik Marx
Chair of Theoretical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Ruhr-Universität
44780 Bochum, Germany

Copyright © Ruhr-University Bochum

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

Further press releases on this topic:

Related News Press

News and information

GLOBALFOUNDRIES and Chengdu Partner to Expand FD-SOI Ecosystem in China: More than $100M investment to establish a center of excellence for FDXTM FD-SOI design May 23rd, 2017

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria: Rice, Ben-Gurion universities show laser-induced graphene kills bacteria, resists biofouling May 22nd, 2017

Leti Will Demo World’s-first WVGA 10-µm Pitch GaN Microdisplays for Augmented Reality Video at Display Week in Los Angles: Invited Paper also Will Present Leti’s Success with New Augmented Reality Technology That Reduces Pixel Pitch to Less than 5 Microns May 22nd, 2017

Graphene-nanotube hybrid boosts lithium metal batteries: Rice University prototypes store 3 times the energy of lithium-ion batteries May 19th, 2017

Chemistry

Stanford scientists use nanotechnology to boost the performance of key industrial catalyst May 18th, 2017

Sandia develops math techniques to improve computational efficiency in quantum chemistry May 5th, 2017

Metal nanoparticles induced visible-light photocatalysis: Mechanisms, applications, ways of promoting catalytic activity and outlook April 27th, 2017

Shedding light on the absorption of light by titanium dioxide April 14th, 2017

Discoveries

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria: Rice, Ben-Gurion universities show laser-induced graphene kills bacteria, resists biofouling May 22nd, 2017

Sensors detect disease markers in breath May 19th, 2017

Graphene-nanotube hybrid boosts lithium metal batteries: Rice University prototypes store 3 times the energy of lithium-ion batteries May 19th, 2017

Plasmon-powered upconversion nanocrystals for enhanced bioimaging and polarized emission: Plasmonic gold nanorods brighten lanthanide-doped upconversion superdots for improved multiphoton bioimaging contrast and enable polarization-selective nonlinear emissions for novel nanoscal May 19th, 2017

Announcements

GLOBALFOUNDRIES and Chengdu Partner to Expand FD-SOI Ecosystem in China: More than $100M investment to establish a center of excellence for FDXTM FD-SOI design May 23rd, 2017

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria: Rice, Ben-Gurion universities show laser-induced graphene kills bacteria, resists biofouling May 22nd, 2017

Leti Will Demo World’s-first WVGA 10-µm Pitch GaN Microdisplays for Augmented Reality Video at Display Week in Los Angles: Invited Paper also Will Present Leti’s Success with New Augmented Reality Technology That Reduces Pixel Pitch to Less than 5 Microns May 22nd, 2017

Graphene-nanotube hybrid boosts lithium metal batteries: Rice University prototypes store 3 times the energy of lithium-ion batteries May 19th, 2017

Interviews/Book Reviews/Essays/Reports/Podcasts/Journals/White papers

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria: Rice, Ben-Gurion universities show laser-induced graphene kills bacteria, resists biofouling May 22nd, 2017

Sensors detect disease markers in breath May 19th, 2017

Graphene-nanotube hybrid boosts lithium metal batteries: Rice University prototypes store 3 times the energy of lithium-ion batteries May 19th, 2017

Plasmon-powered upconversion nanocrystals for enhanced bioimaging and polarized emission: Plasmonic gold nanorods brighten lanthanide-doped upconversion superdots for improved multiphoton bioimaging contrast and enable polarization-selective nonlinear emissions for novel nanoscal May 19th, 2017

Environment

Can crab shells provide a 'green' solution to malaria? Study shows how a mixture of chitin and silver nanoparticles inhibits growth of mosquito larvae May 12th, 2017

NanoMONITOR shares its latest developments concerning the NanoMONITOR Software and the Monitoring stations April 21st, 2017

Wood filter removes toxic dye from water April 21st, 2017

Making Batteries From Waste Glass Bottles: UCR researchers are turning glass bottles into high performance lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and personal electronics April 19th, 2017

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project