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With his research on quantum states in the realm between order and disorder, Professor Jörg Schmiedmayer's work has raised quite a stir; ultra cold atom clouds with a high degree of order approach a disordered thermal equilibrium. During this transition they spend some time in an astonishingly stable intermediate state. With a new ERC Grant, one of the most prestigious Research Grants in Europe, Schmiedmayer will now dig deeper into the physics of non-equilibrium phenomena in many-particle quantum systems.
How do quantum states melt?
Every day we can see transitions into a thermal equilibrium - for instance when an icicle heats up and melts. When this happens, the entropy (a measure for the disorder in a physical system) increases and information about the system is lost. The ultra cold Bose-Einstein condensates created at the Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ) also approach a thermal equilibrium. In doing so, they go from a state which can also be described in terms of quantum physics to a state in which the quantum properties of the particles do not play an important role any more. In between, however, a surprisingly stable intermediate state can be found - the so-called "pre-thermalized state".
"At first, the order in the system decays rapidly, but then, after reaching the pre-thermalized state, it stays practically constant", says Jörg Schmiedmayer. "Part of the quantum information can still be detected. The atom cloud has not yet forgotten that it has emerged from an extremely ordered Bose-Einstein condensate." While the initial loss of information takes place within a few milliseconds, the pre-thermalized state remains for more than a tenth of a second.
Quantum Computers and the Big Bang
Schmidmayer believes that this appearance on an intermediate state between quantum physical order and classical disorder is a very general phenomenon, which should also be visible in different systems. "Pre-thermalized states supposedly play a role in heavy ion collisions at extremely high energies, for instance at the LHC, CERN. Also, the cosmic background radiation could possibly come from a pre-thermalized state the whole universe was in shortly after the Big Bang", says Schmiedmayer. In quantum physics, the pre-thermalized state could be important for many different applications. If data is to be stored in a quantum computer or if quantum-calculations are to be carried out, a state of highly ordered disequilibrium has to be formed. The transition into a thermal equilibrium then destroys this state.
Grant from the European Research Council
For his research, Jörg Schmiedmayer now receives one of Europe's most prestigious grants: the ERC Advanced Grant, awarded by the European Research Council. With approximately two million Euros from the ERC grant, he is planning to do carry out new experiments investigating relaxation and non-equilibrium dynamics in quantum systems. "With our experiments we want to contribute to a fundamental unified theory of non-equilibrium systems, which hopefully applies to a variety of different quantum systems", says Schmiedmayer.
About Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna
With its eight faculties - mathematics and geo-information, physics, technical chemistry, informatics, civil engineering, architecture and regional planning, mechanical engineering and business science, electrical engineering and information technology – the Vienna University of Technology covers the classic engineering disciplines.
The TU Vienna has a great pool of specialists who are acting in a wide range of different topics in research, teaching and as partners of the economy. More than 2000 scientists do their research and teaching at highly advanced and modern institutes – in summary about 70. Although fundamental research has priority at the TU Vienna applied research is also done. Moreover services are offered as high-tech problem solving and examination expertise for industry and economy. Innovation orientated companies are highly interested in co-operating with the Vienna University of Technology because of its high-tech and high-quality research and its openness for requests of the economy.
The Vienna University of Technology puts great emphasis on co-operation between its own institutes as well as with other universities. Therefore the TU Vienna participates in several European Union (EU) and other research programmes.
The aim of the university was and still is to belong to the best. The effort to reach this aim is also expressed in its mission statement: With the aim of providing technology for people, our mission is to develop scientific excellence and wide-ranging competence in our students.
About Jörg Schmiedmayer
Since 2006, Jörg Schmiedmayer has been a professor at the Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics at the Vienna University of Technology, where he had already worked as a PhD student. He went to Harvard and MIT (Cambridge, USA) as a postdoc, and then to Innsbruck. He subsequently held the position of Professor for Experimental Physics at Heidelberg University. He was guest professor at Beijing University and at the National Institute for Informatics (NII) in Tokyo. Schmiedmayer has been awarded numerous prizes – including the Wittgenstein-Preis (from the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2006).
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