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The use of nanomaterials in agriculture could, on the one hand, reduce cost and effort, increase efficiency and lead to more environmentally sound applications. On the other hand, it might also have a negative effect on microorganisms in the soil. This is concluded by the authors of a review article written within the scope of the National Research Programme "Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials" (NRP 64).
Although no plant protection products or fertilisers containing nanomaterials are available on the market as yet, nanomaterials are becoming an increasingly important issue in agriculture, particularly as additives or agents in fertilisers or plant protection products: The number of scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials in this area has increased exponentially since the turn of the millennium, according to a review article recently published by researchers from the Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station and the Federal Office for Agriculture (*). With around 70 articles published until now, it is still possible for researchers to gain an overview of the topic. The USA and Germany are leading the field with regard to patents, but most of the scientific articles have been written in Asian countries.
Often outside the traditional nano range
Approximately 40 percent of the publications deal with carbon-based nanomaterials, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silicagel and aluminium. Nanomaterials can be integrated into formulations in different forms and states - from solid particles through to polymers and emulsions. It is noticeable that the material development is often based on natural and degradable basic substances. The nanomaterials used are often larger than 100 nanometres and therefore by definition lie outside the classical nano range. In new plant protection products, in particular, the nanomaterials often serve as an additive that helps to release the agent in a controlled manner.
1000-fold higher flux into soils
The potential improvement of plant protection products and fertilisers through nanomaterials is offset by their significantly higher flux into soils if nanomaterials are used. Experts currently predict that this rate could be as much as 1000 times higher than the load released from the atmosphere. Hence, soil organisms and crops would also be more exposed to these substances.
Companies in Switzerland are already required to declare any nanomaterials contained in new plant protection products that they wish to register. However, international principles of nano-specific risk assessment are still at the development stage. As part of the National Research Programme "Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials" (NRP 64), the project NANOMICROPS (Effects of NANOparticles on beneficial soil MIcrobes and CROPS) is contributing to these efforts by developing ecotoxicological test systems for soil microorganisms and crops as well as making available analytical methods for quantifying nanomaterials in agriculturally significant environmental compartments such as soil and water.
(*) Alexander Gogos, Katja Knauer, and Thomas D. Bucheli (2012). Nanomaterials in Plant Protection and Fertilization: Current State, Foreseen Applications, and Research Priorities. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60: 9781-9792
(available as a PDF from the SNSF; e-mail: )
About Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Foerderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Acting on a mandate issued by the Swiss Federal Government, the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) supports research undertaken inside and outside universities and fosters young scientific talent.
The Foundation Council is the governing body of the SNSF, which was founded in 1952. The Foundation Council has representatives of the scientific and research communities, the Federal Government and the cantons as well as economic and cultural institutions.
The Research Council, which is divided into four Divisions, evaluates research projects and makes decisions about awarding grants. The Local Research Commissions award fellowships for prospective researchers and assist the SNSF with the evaluation of grant applications.
The Secretariat, based in Berne, does the groundwork for the business of the Foundation and Research Councils and is responsible for administrative and financial duties.
About NRP 64
The aim of the National Research Programme "Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials" (NRP 64) is to close research gaps so that the opportunities and risks of using nanomaterials can be more accurately assessed. The results of the 23 research projects will serve as a basis for the preparation of guidelines for the production, use and disposal of nanomaterials. This will support the development and application of safe technologies, optimise the benefits of using nanomaterials and minimise risk for humans and the environment. NRP 64 has a budget of CHF 12 million and will run until October 2016.
For more information, please click here
+41 (0)31 3082222
Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station
Tel. 044 377 73 42
(Head of Knowledge Transfer NRP 64)
Life Science Communication AG
Tel.: 043 266 88 50
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