Nanotechnology Now







Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Ancient enzymes function like nanopistons to unwind RNA: DEAD-box proteins function as recycling nanopistons when unwinding RNA

Abstract:
Molecular biologists at The University of Texas at Austin have solved one of the mysteries of how double-stranded RNA is remodeled inside cells in both their normal and disease states. The discovery may have implications for treating cancer and viruses in humans.

Ancient enzymes function like nanopistons to unwind RNA: DEAD-box proteins function as recycling nanopistons when unwinding RNA

Austin, TX | Posted on September 2nd, 2012

The research, which was published this week in Nature, found that DEAD-box proteins, which are ancient enzymes found in all forms of life, function as recycling "nanopistons." They use chemical energy to clamp down and pry open RNA strands, thereby enabling the formation of new structures.

"If you want to couple fuel energy to mechanical work to drive strand separation, this is a very versatile mechanism," said co-author Alan Lambowitz, the Nancy Lee and Perry R. Bass Regents Chair in Molecular Biology in the College of Natural Sciences and Director of the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology.

In all cellular organisms RNA (ribonucleic acid) plays a fundamental role in the translation of genetic information into the synthesis of proteins. DEAD-box proteins are the largest family of what are known as " RNA helicases," which unwind RNA.

"It has been known for some time that these enzymes do not function like traditional helicases," said Eckhard Jankowsky, professor of biochemistry at Case Western Reserve University Medical School. "The manuscript now provides the critical information that explains how the unwinding reaction works. It marks a major step towards understanding the molecular mechanics for many steps in RNA biology."

Lambowitz said that the basic insight came when Anna Mallam, a post-doctoral researcher in his lab, hypothesized that DEAD-box proteins function modularly. One area on the protein binds to an ATP molecule, which is the energy source. Another area binds to the double-stranded RNA.

"Once the second domain is latched on to the RNA," said Mallam, "and the first has got its ATP, the 'piston' comes down. It has a sharp edge that drives between the two strands and also grabs on one strand and bends it out of the way."

Lambowitz, Mallam and their colleagues uncovered this mechanism in Mss116p, a DEAD-box protein in yeast. The mechanism is almost certainly universal to the entire family of the proteins, however, and therefore to all domains of life.

"Every DEAD-box protein that we know about has the same structure," said Lambowitz, "and they all presumably use the same mechanism."

Lambowitz said that the Mss116p proteins are particularly useful as a universal remodeling device because they can bind to any RNA.

"It recognizes the geometry of double-stranded RNA," he said. "It doesn't care about the sequence, and doesn't care about what it that particular RNA molecule's function is. It just sees it and binds and for that reason can be incorporated into many different cellular processes."

This flexibility of DEAD-box proteins is essential to the functioning of healthy cells, which rely on a range of RNA molecules for basic processes, including protein synthesis.

It's also hijacked in cancers, where over-expression of DEAD-box proteins may help drive uncontrolled cell proliferation, and in infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which rely on specific DEAD-box proteins for their propagation.

"This is basic science," said Lambowitz. "Its major significance is in understanding, at the root, how this mechanism works. But when you understand how DEAD-box proteins function both in normal cellular processes and in disease processes, you can absolutely begin to think about how they might be targeted in things like cancer and viruses."

"You can even envision, in the far future, how they be incorporated into artificial nanomachines, for switches and other mechanical devices inside and outside the cell."

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Daniel Oppenheimer

512-745-3353

Copyright © University of Texas at Austin

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

New Biological Nano-Fertilizers Presented in Iran as Appropriate Replacements for Chemical Fertilizers April 18th, 2015

Iranian Foodstuff, Agricultural Industries Welcome Nanotechnology Packaging Bags April 18th, 2015

Nanocomposites Play Effective Role in Production of Smart Fibers April 18th, 2015

Dais Analytic Corporation Appoints Eliza Wang to Board of Directors: Company's Newest Director Brings Expertise in Commercial and Legal Matters Both in the United States and China; Joins on the Heels of Successful Business Development Trade Mission to China April 18th, 2015

Possible Futures

A glass fiber that brings light to a standstill: By coupling photons to atoms, light in a glass fiber can be slowed down to the speed of an express train; for a short while it can even be brought to a complete stop April 9th, 2015

Nanotechnology in Medical Devices Market is expected to reach $8.5 Billion by 2019 March 25th, 2015

Nanotechnology Enabled Drug Delivery to Influence Future Diagnosis and Treatments of Diseases March 21st, 2015

Nanocomposites Market Growth, Industry Outlook To 2020 by Grand View Research, Inc. March 21st, 2015

Molecular Machines

Designer's toolkit for dynamic DNA nanomachines: Arm-waving nanorobot signals new flexibility in DNA origami March 27th, 2015

Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots March 24th, 2015

New remote control for molecular motors: It is now theoretically possible to remotely control the direction in which magnetic molecules spin, which opens the door to designing applications based on molecular motors March 16th, 2015

Monitoring the real-time deformation of carbon nanocoils under axial loading February 18th, 2015

Molecular Nanotechnology

DWI scientists program the lifetime of self-assembled nanostructures April 9th, 2015

Nanoscale worms provide new route to nano-necklace structures March 29th, 2015

Designer's toolkit for dynamic DNA nanomachines: Arm-waving nanorobot signals new flexibility in DNA origami March 27th, 2015

Monitoring the real-time deformation of carbon nanocoils under axial loading February 18th, 2015

Discoveries

Optical resonance-based biosensors designed for medical applications April 18th, 2015

Iranian Foodstuff, Agricultural Industries Welcome Nanotechnology Packaging Bags April 18th, 2015

Nanocomposites Play Effective Role in Production of Smart Fibers April 18th, 2015

Protein Building Blocks for Nanosystems: Scientists develop method for producing bio-based materials with new properties April 17th, 2015

Announcements

New Biological Nano-Fertilizers Presented in Iran as Appropriate Replacements for Chemical Fertilizers April 18th, 2015

Iranian Foodstuff, Agricultural Industries Welcome Nanotechnology Packaging Bags April 18th, 2015

Nanocomposites Play Effective Role in Production of Smart Fibers April 18th, 2015

Dais Analytic Corporation Appoints Eliza Wang to Board of Directors: Company's Newest Director Brings Expertise in Commercial and Legal Matters Both in the United States and China; Joins on the Heels of Successful Business Development Trade Mission to China April 18th, 2015

Nanobiotechnology

Protein Building Blocks for Nanosystems: Scientists develop method for producing bio-based materials with new properties April 17th, 2015

Study shows novel pattern of electrical charge movement through DNA April 14th, 2015

UAB researchers develop a harmless artificial virus for gene therapy April 8th, 2015

Pavel Levkin Is Granted Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Prize April 8th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







© Copyright 1999-2015 7th Wave, Inc. All Rights Reserved PRIVACY POLICY :: CONTACT US :: STATS :: SITE MAP :: ADVERTISE