Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors





Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Tiny bubbles snap carbon nanotubes like twigs: Rice University study details exactly how nanotubes bend and break

The mechanism by which carbon nanotubes break or bend under the influence of bubbles during sonication is the topic of a new paper led by researchers at Rice University. The team found that short nanotubes are drawn end-first into collapsing bubbles, stretching them, while longer ones are more prone to breakage. 

CREDIT:Pasquali Lab/Rice University
The mechanism by which carbon nanotubes break or bend under the influence of bubbles during sonication is the topic of a new paper led by researchers at Rice University. The team found that short nanotubes are drawn end-first into collapsing bubbles, stretching them, while longer ones are more prone to breakage.

CREDIT:Pasquali Lab/Rice University

Abstract:
What's 100 times stronger than steel, weighs one-sixth as much and can be snapped like a twig by a tiny air bubble? The answer is a carbon nanotube -- and a new study by Rice University scientists details exactly how the much-studied nanomaterials snap when subjected to ultrasonic vibrations in a liquid.

Tiny bubbles snap carbon nanotubes like twigs: Rice University study details exactly how nanotubes bend and break

Houston, TX | Posted on July 9th, 2012

"We find that the old saying 'I will break but not bend' does not hold at the micro- and nanoscale," said Rice engineering researcher Matteo Pasquali, the lead scientist on the study, which appears this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Carbon nanotubes -- hollow tubes of pure carbon about as wide as a strand of DNA -- are one of the most-studied materials in nanotechnology. For well over a decade, scientists have used ultrasonic vibrations to separate and prepare nanotubes in the lab. In the new study, Pasquali and colleagues show how this process works -- and why it's a detriment to long nanotubes. That's important for researchers who want to make and study long nanotubes.

"We found that long and short nanotubes behave very differently when they are sonicated," said Pasquali, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and of chemistry at Rice. "Shorter nanotubes get stretched while longer nanotubes bend. Both mechanisms can lead to breaking."

Discovered more than 20 years ago, carbon nanotubes are one of the original wonder materials of nanotechnology. They are close cousins of the buckyball, the particle whose 1985 discovery at Rice helped kick off the nanotechnology revolution.

Nanotubes can be used in paintable batteries and sensors, to diagnose and treat disease, and for next-generation power cables in electrical grids. Many of the optical and material properties of nanotubes were discovered at Rice's Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, and the first large-scale production method for making single-wall nanotubes was discovered at Rice by the institute's namesake, the late Richard Smalley.

"Processing nanotubes in liquids is industrially important but it's quite difficult because they tend to clump together," co-author Micah Green said. "These nanotube clumps won't dissolve in common solvents, but sonication can break these clumps apart in order to separate, i.e., disperse, the nanotubes."

Newly grown nanotubes can be a thousand times longer than they are wide, and although sonication is very effective at breaking up the clumps, it also makes the nanotubes shorter. In fact, researchers have developed an equation called a "power law" that describes how dramatic this shortening will be. Scientists input the sonication power and the amount of time the sample will be sonicated, and the power law tells them the average length of the nanotubes that will be produced. The nanotubes get shorter as power and exposure time increase.

"The problem is that there are two different power laws that match with separate experimental findings, and one of them produces a length that's a good deal shorter than the other," Pasquali said. "It's not that one is correct and the other is wrong. Each has been verified experimentally, so it's a matter of understanding why. Philippe Poulin first exposed this discrepancy in the literature and brought the problem to my attention when I was visiting his lab three years ago."

To investigate this discrepancy, Pasquali and study co-authors Guido Pagani, Micah Green and Poulin set out to accurately model the interactions between the nanotubes and the sonication bubbles. Their computer model, which ran on Rice's Cray XD1 supercomputer, used a combination of fluid dynamics techniques to accurately simulate the interaction. When the team ran the simulations, they found that longer tubes behaved very differently from their shorter counterparts.

"If the nanotube is short, one end will get drawn down by the collapsing bubble so that the nanotube is aligned toward the center of the bubble," Pasquali said. "In this case, the tube doesn't bend, but rather stretches. This behavior had been previously predicted, but we also found that long nanotubes did something unexpected. The model showed how the collapsing bubble drew longer nanotubes inward from the middle, bending them and snapping them like twigs."

Pasquali said the model shows how both power laws can each be correct: One is describing a process that affects longer nanotubes and another describes a process that affects shorter ones.

"It took some flexibility to understand what was happening," Pasquali said. "But the upshot is that we have a very accurate description of what happens when nanotubes are sonicated."

Study co-authors include Pagani, formerly a visiting scholar at Rice, who studied the sonication process as part of his master's thesis research; Green, a former Evans Attwell-Welch Postdoctoral Researcher at Rice who is now a faculty member at Texas Tech University; and Poulin, research director at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and a faculty member at the University of Bordeaux in Pessac, France.

The research was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the Welch Foundation's Evans Attwell-Welch Fellowship Program, the National Science Foundation, Cray, AMD, Rice's Ken Kennedy Institute for Information Technology and the Texas Tech University High Performance Computing Center.

####

About Rice University
Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is known for its "unconventional wisdom." With 3,708 undergraduates and 2,374 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice has been ranked No. 1 for best quality of life multiple times by the Princeton Review and No. 4 for "best value" among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance. To read "What they're saying about Rice," go to www.rice.edu/nationalmedia/Rice.pdf.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Jeff Falk
713-348-6775


Mike Williams
713-348-6728

Copyright © Rice University

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

A copy of the PNAS paper is available at:

Related News Press

News and information

Iranian Scientists Use Artemisia Annua Plant to Produce Breast Cancer Drugs August 29th, 2015

Small but heading for the big time: Nanobiotix half year results for the six months ended 30 June 2015, in line with expectations: Major clinical achievements and corporate developments August 28th, 2015

A new technique to make drugs more soluble August 28th, 2015

Nanocatalysts improve processes for the petrochemical industry August 28th, 2015

Physics

Record-high pressure reveals secrets of matter: The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures above 750 GPa August 25th, 2015

Southampton scientists find new way to detect ortho-para conversion in water August 25th, 2015

Biophysics: Formation of swarms in nanosystems August 18th, 2015

Attosecond physics: Attosecond electron catapult: Physicists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) in Munich studied the interaction of light with tiny glass particles August 15th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

These microscopic fish are 3-D-printed to do more than swim: Researchers demonstrate a novel method to build microscopic robots with complex shapes and functionalities August 26th, 2015

Glitter from silver lights up Alzheimer's dark secrets August 25th, 2015

Southampton scientists find new way to detect ortho-para conversion in water August 25th, 2015

Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Provides Update On Hospital Project, PCAOB Audit, and New Heat Shield™ Line August 24th, 2015

Nanotubes/Buckyballs/Fullerenes

Developing Component Scale Composites Using Nanocarbons August 26th, 2015

Southampton scientists find new way to detect ortho-para conversion in water August 25th, 2015

Revolutionary MIT-Developed Nanotechnology Company Showcases at CAMX in Dallas August 20th, 2015

Engineering a better 'Do: Purdue researchers are learning how August 4th, 2015

Nanomedicine

Iranian Scientists Use Artemisia Annua Plant to Produce Breast Cancer Drugs August 29th, 2015

Small but heading for the big time: Nanobiotix half year results for the six months ended 30 June 2015, in line with expectations: Major clinical achievements and corporate developments August 28th, 2015

A new technique to make drugs more soluble August 28th, 2015

These microscopic fish are 3-D-printed to do more than swim: Researchers demonstrate a novel method to build microscopic robots with complex shapes and functionalities August 26th, 2015

Sensors

Successful boron-doping of graphene nanoribbon August 27th, 2015

Nanotechnology that will impact the Security & Defense sectors to be discussed at NanoSD2015 conference August 25th, 2015

High Precision, High Stability XYZ Microscope Stages, with Capacitive Feedback August 18th, 2015

Setting ground rules for nanotechnology research: Two new projects set the stage for nanotechnology research to move into Big Data August 18th, 2015

Nanoelectronics

Nanotechnology that will impact the Security & Defense sectors to be discussed at NanoSD2015 conference August 25th, 2015

'Quantum dot' technology may help light the future August 19th, 2015

Surprising discoveries about 2-D molybdenum disulfide: Berkeley Lab researchers use award-winning campanile probe on promising semiconductor August 15th, 2015

Better together: Graphene-nanotube hybrid switches August 3rd, 2015

Discoveries

Iranian Scientists Use Artemisia Annua Plant to Produce Breast Cancer Drugs August 29th, 2015

A new technique to make drugs more soluble August 28th, 2015

Nanocatalysts improve processes for the petrochemical industry August 28th, 2015

CWRU researchers efficiently charge a lithium-ion battery with solar cell: Coupling with perovskite solar cell holds potential for cleaner cars and more August 27th, 2015

Materials/Metamaterials

Nanocatalysts improve processes for the petrochemical industry August 28th, 2015

Successful boron-doping of graphene nanoribbon August 27th, 2015

Developing Component Scale Composites Using Nanocarbons August 26th, 2015

Quantum diffraction at a breath of nothing: Physicists build stable diffraction structure in atomically thin graphene August 25th, 2015

Announcements

Iranian Scientists Use Artemisia Annua Plant to Produce Breast Cancer Drugs August 29th, 2015

Small but heading for the big time: Nanobiotix half year results for the six months ended 30 June 2015, in line with expectations: Major clinical achievements and corporate developments August 28th, 2015

A new technique to make drugs more soluble August 28th, 2015

Nanocatalysts improve processes for the petrochemical industry August 28th, 2015

Military

These microscopic fish are 3-D-printed to do more than swim: Researchers demonstrate a novel method to build microscopic robots with complex shapes and functionalities August 26th, 2015

Nanotechnology that will impact the Security & Defense sectors to be discussed at NanoSD2015 conference August 25th, 2015

Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Provides Update On Hospital Project, PCAOB Audit, and New Heat Shield™ Line August 24th, 2015

Graphene oxide's secret properties revealed at atomic level: A research team found that graphene oxide's inherent defects give rise to a surprising mechanical property August 24th, 2015

Energy

Nanocatalysts improve processes for the petrochemical industry August 28th, 2015

Nanotechnology that will impact the Security & Defense sectors to be discussed at NanoSD2015 conference August 25th, 2015

Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Provides Update On Hospital Project, PCAOB Audit, and New Heat Shield™ Line August 24th, 2015

Novel nanostructures for efficient long-range energy transport August 21st, 2015

Industrial

Developing Component Scale Composites Using Nanocarbons August 26th, 2015

Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Provides Update On Hospital Project, PCAOB Audit, and New Heat Shield™ Line August 24th, 2015

'Diamonds from the sky' approach turns CO2 into valuable products August 19th, 2015

Lehigh University-DuPont tribology research seeks to reduce wear and waste August 13th, 2015

Battery Technology/Capacitors/Generators/Piezoelectrics/Thermoelectrics/Energy storage

CWRU researchers efficiently charge a lithium-ion battery with solar cell: Coupling with perovskite solar cell holds potential for cleaner cars and more August 27th, 2015

'Diamonds from the sky' approach turns CO2 into valuable products August 19th, 2015

Drexel engineers 'sandwich' atomic layers to make new materials for energy storage August 15th, 2015

Flexible, biodegradable device can generate power from touch (video) August 12th, 2015

Photonics/Optics/Lasers

Glitter from silver lights up Alzheimer's dark secrets August 25th, 2015

Quantum diffraction at a breath of nothing: Physicists build stable diffraction structure in atomically thin graphene August 25th, 2015

Nanotechnology that will impact the Security & Defense sectors to be discussed at NanoSD2015 conference August 25th, 2015

A little light interaction leaves quantum physicists beaming August 25th, 2015

Research partnerships

Nanocatalysts improve processes for the petrochemical industry August 28th, 2015

Announcing Oxford Instruments and School of Physics signing a Memorandum of Understanding August 26th, 2015

Researchers combine disciplines, computational programs to determine atomic structure August 26th, 2015

Developing Component Scale Composites Using Nanocarbons August 26th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







Car Brands
Buy website traffic