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Home > Press > Advanced Ceramics and Nanoceramic Powders

Abstract:
Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Advanced Ceramics and Nanoceramic Powders

www.reportlinker.com/p0568376/Advanced-Ceramics-and-Nanoceramic-Powders.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=Nanotechnology

Advanced Ceramics and Nanoceramic Powders

New York, NY | Posted on July 6th, 2011

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

* The U.S. consumed more than $3.1 billion worth of advanced and nanoscale ceramic powders in 2010. Consumption is projected to increase to nearly $3.4 billion in 2011 and $5.4 billion in 2016, a projected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.9% between 2011 and 2016.

* Advanced ceramic powders account for the bulk of the market (i.e. 83% in 2010), with sales of $2.5 billion in 2010, increasing to $4 billion by 2016, for a CAGR of 8.3%.

* Nanoscale powders are expected to increase their market share steadily, reaching a 24% market share by 2016. Its market was worth $528 million in 2010. This should increase at a CAGR of 16.4% to reach $1.2 billion in 2016.

REPORT SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

Advanced ceramic materials are a mature technology with a very broad base of current and potential applications and a growing list of material compositions. Advanced ceramics are inorganic, nonmetallic materials with combinations of fine-scale microstructures, purity, complex compositions and crystal structures, and accurately controlled additives. Such materials require a level of processing science and engineering far beyond that used in making conventional ceramics. These new generations of high-performance materials have already reached a U.S. market of several billion dollars. Collectively, they represent an enabling technology whose continued development is critical to advances in a host of new high-technology applications, ranging from modern microelectronics to superconductors and nanotechnology.

The outstanding properties possessed by advanced ceramics are achieved through special compositions and microstructures that require very careful control throughout the successive stages of ceramic processing. These stages are: powder synthesis, powder sizing, rheology control, consolidation and forming processes, sintering, final machining, and inspection.

Ceramic powder is a necessary ingredient for most of the structural ceramics, electronic ceramics, ceramic coatings, and chemical processing and environmental related ceramics. For most advanced ceramic components, starting powder is a crucial factor. The performance characteristics of a ceramic component are greatly influenced by precursor powder characteristics. Among the most important are the powder's chemical purity, particle size distribution, and the manner in which the powders are packed in the green body before sintering.

Powders of narrow size distribution can be compacted into ordered arrays and, when in the submicron region, these powders are sintered at reduced temperatures. Consequently, in the processing of advanced ceramics, there is a growing need to develop synthetic techniques capable of producing submicron, chemically pure powders with a tailored size distribution. However, the cost is again the factor since the new synthetic processing techniques are comparatively more expensive than the currently established powder manufacturing methods.

Nanoceramic powders constitute an important segment of the whole nanostructured materials market. These powders are used in an array of applications from microelectronics, optical, chemical, environmental, and magnetic recording.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

BCC published the first report on this subject, entitled Advanced Ceramic Powders, in 1994. Since then, many new developments have occurred, especially in the availability of large quantities of nanoceramic powders, as well as the increased usage of these powders.

BCC has updated the original report several times in order to reflect timely developments in advanced and nanoceramic powders. The present report is the sixth updated edition of the 1994 study. Its objectives are to:

* Provide an overview of the various advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders, their production technologies, and applications

* Identify the technological and business issues related to the commercial production and use of advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders

* Determine the current size and future growth of the markets for oxide, carbide, nitride, and boride ceramic powders

* Determine the current size and future growth of the markets for nanosized ceramic powders

* Identify and profile suppliers of advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders to the U.S. market

* Identify major user industries of advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders

* Identify major issues related to the production and commercialization of advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders

CONTRIBUTIONS Of THE STUDY

BCC's technical and economic study covers the material types, synthesis techniques, production methods, current and emerging applications, suppliers, and trends in consumption of the various types of advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders. Current size and future growth of the markets are estimated for the period 2010 through 2016. The report profiles commercially significant suppliers of advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders to the U.S. market.

In particular, the term nanotechnology is used today to describe a wide range of new technologies and materials, not all of which are actually nanoscale. Some manufacturers have tacked the prefix "nano" onto their products and processes, whether or not they deal in nano-sized elements, in an attempt to boost customer or investor interest. Such hype inevitably carries with it the risk of a backlash, because it can create unrealistic expectations for nanotechnology. This report takes a realistic look at the nanoceramics field and tries to provide a road map to the technologies and applications that show the greatest commercial promise over the next 5 years.

SCOPE OF REPORTS

For each ceramic powder type, the report provides an analysis of material types in that category, processing technologies, properties, applications, suppliers, prices, and U.S. markets.

A technology review has been conducted on the current and emerging ceramic powder production technologies, such as carbothermal reduction, vapor-phase reaction, plasma processes, sol-gel techniques, and chemical techniques (including precipitation, hydrothermal process, emulsion process, laser synthesis, and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis [SHS]). Nanosized powders have been treated in a separate chapter since many nanosized powder synthesis technologies are common to different ceramic powders.

The qualitative and quantitative judgments embodied in this report are a valuable contribution to the current knowledge of advanced and nanosized ceramic powders, their processing techniques, applications, and markets. They should be useful to companies that are facing decisions about their strategies for expansion or entering new areas of business.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

The findings of this report are based on information derived from interviews with many producers and potential producers of advanced ceramic powders and nanosized ceramic powders, industry experts, and those conducting research and development. In addition, many end users were contacted to evaluate the current and future demand for these materials. Secondary data were obtained from trade publications, technical journals, government statistics, and BCC databases.

With 2010 as a baseline, projections for each market segment were developed for 2011 through 2016. The projections are based on a combination of a consensus among the primary contacts combined with BCC's understanding of the key market drivers and their impact from a historical and analytical perspective.

Unless otherwise noted, all dollar projections presented in this report are in 2010 constant dollars.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is directed to the various types of companies that are interested in the developments of this field. These include:

* Companies involved in the development, manufacturing, and supplying of advanced materials.

* Manufacturers and suppliers of advanced ceramic raw materials.

* Manufacturers and suppliers of advanced ceramic powders.

* Companies involved in R&D and commercialization of nanosized ceramic powders.

* Companies involved in the development and manufacture of advanced ceramic components.

* Engine component manufacturers.

* Cutting tool insert manufacturers.

* Manufacturers of integrated circuits, piezoelectric elements, capacitors, ferrite magnets and magnetic cores, and superconductor wires.

* Suppliers and users of thermal spray powders.

* Manufacturers of wear parts and OEM suppliers.

* Manufacturers of ceramic catalysts, catalyst supports, and auto catalytic converters.

* Manufacturers of ceramic membranes and filters.

* Producers and users of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurries.

* Producers of magnetic recording media.

* Producers of sunscreens.

* Chemical companies interested in diversification.

* Venture capital companies and financial institutions interested in new, attractive investments and acquisitions.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

This report is an update of an earlier report prepared by Dr. Thomas Abraham. Dr. Abraham was formerly Vice President, and Director of the Advanced Materials Group of BCC. Dr. Abraham has extensive experience in the field of advanced materials, including advanced ceramics, synthetic diamonds and diamond films, magnetic materials, high performance coatings, and superconductors.

The analyst responsible for updating the report is Andrew McWilliams, a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel LLC. Mr. McWilliams is the author of numerous other BCC studies, including those in ceramic-related fields such as NAN031D Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment; AVM015E High-performance Ceramic Coatings: Markets and Technologies; AVM025G Diamond, Diamond-like and CBN Films and Coating Products; AVM066B: Superconductors: Technologies and Global Markets; NAN021D Nanocomposites, Nanoparticles, Nanoclays, and Nanotubes; and NAN040A Nanomaterials Markets by Type.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION . 1

INTRODUCTION 1

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 2

SCOPE OF REPORT 3

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES .... 3

INTENDED AUDIENCE .... 4

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4

RELATED BCC REPORTS 5

BCC ONLINE SERVICES .. 5

DISCLAIMER . 6

CHAPTER TWO: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ... 7

SUMMARY TABLE U.S. CONSUMPTION OF ADVANCED AND

NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION

LBS/$ MILLIONS) .... 7

SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. CONSUMPTION OF ADVANCED AND

NANOSIZED CERAMIC POWDERS, 2010-2016 (% OF TOTAL

VALUE CONSUMED) .... 8

CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED CERAMIC POWDERS ... 9

POWDER TYPES . 9

TABLE 1 COMMONLY USED ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIAL

FAMILIES . 10

POWDER SYNTHESIS TECHNIQUES ... 10

CARBOTHERMAL REDUCTION .. 11

TABLE 2 PROCESS STEPS TO PRODUCE -SIC VIA

CARBOTHERMAL REDUCTION ... 11

VAPOR-PHASE REACTIONS .. 11

Thermal Decomposition ... 11

CVD Process . 12

FIGURE 1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THERMAL REACTOR SYSTEM

FOR PRODUCING CERAMIC POWDERS BY CVD .... 12

PLASMA PROCESSES .... 13

TABLE 3 PLASMA SYNTHESIS OF CERAMIC POWDERS .... 13

TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) ... 14

DC Arc Plasma Process ... 14

FIGURE 2 SCHEMATIC OF A DC ARC PLASMA FURNACE

DEVELOPED BY JAPAN'S NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE

FOR METALS 15

RF Plasma Process 15

FIGURE 3 LOS ALAMOS RF PLASMA REACTOR .... 16

Plasma Rapid Solidification Technology . 16

Reactive Electrode Submerged Arc 17

SOL-GEL TECHNIQUES .... 18

Alkoxide Route .. 18

Internal Gelation ... 18

PRECIPITATION ... 19

HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS ... 20

EMULSION PROCESS .... 21

FIGURE 4 PROCESS FLOWCHART FOR EMULSION PROCESS TO

PRODUCE BARIUM TITANATE .... 22

LASER SYNTHESIS ... 23

COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS/SELF-PROPAGATING HIGH-

TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS . 23

COMBINATORIALLY DISCOVERED MATERIALS . 24

POWDER SYNTHESIS COMPARISON .. 25

TABLE 4 POWDER SYNTHESIS COMPARISON . 25

TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) ... 26

TABLE 5 POWDER PROCESSES FOR VARIOUS CERAMIC

MATERIALS .. 27

MATERIAL APPLICATIONS AND PROPERTIES 28

STRUCTURAL CERAMICS . 28

ELECTRONIC CERAMICS .. 28

CERAMIC COATINGS .... 28

TABLE 6 CURRENT AND POTENTIAL USES FOR ADVANCED

CERAMICS .... 29

TABLE 6 (CONTINUED) ... 30

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS .... 30

TABLE 7 CURRENT AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS 31

Monolithic Structural Ceramics 32

TABLE 8 PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL ALUMINA

SPECIFICATIONS .. 32

TABLE 9 PROPERTIES OF NORZIDE YZ-110 TETRAGONAL

ZIRCONIA POLYCRYSTALS (TZP) .... 33

TABLE 10 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS AND CRITICAL FLAW SIZES OF

MONOLITHIC AND COMPOSITE CERAMICS MATERIALSA 34

TABLE 11 PROPERTIES OF MONOLITHIC CERAMICS AND

CERAMIC COMPOSITES . 35

TABLE 12 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF VARIOUS ZIRCONIAS 36

Ceramic Matrix Composites . 36

CERAMIC COATINGS .... 36

TABLE 13 HIGH-PERFORMANCE CERAMIC COATING MATERIALS

AND GENERAL APPLICATIONS ... 37

TABLE 14 REPRESENTATIVE FLAME AND PLASMA SPRAYED

MATERIALS, MELTING OR SOFTENING TEMPERATURE, AND

USES .... 37

TABLE 14 (CONTINUED) . 38

ELECTRONIC CERAMICS .. 39

Insulators 39

TABLE 15 CERAMIC INSULATORS AND THEIR PROPERTIES .... 40

Substrates, IC Packages, and Multichip Modules . 40

TABLE 16 CERAMIC SUBSTRATE PROPERTIES ... 41

TABLE 17 CANDIDATE CERAMIC SUBSTRATE MATERIALS FOR

ELECTRONICS .. 42

Capacitors .... 42

TABLE 18 DIELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR MULTILAYER CERAMIC

CAPACITOR (BARIUM TITANATE-BASED CERAMIC) 43

Piezoelectric Ceramics 44

Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells 44

Magnetic Ferrites .. 45

Superconductors .... 46

CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED CERAMICS ... 47

Ceramic Membranes and Filters ... 47

Catalysts and Catalytic Supports .. 48

OTHER TECHNICAL ISSUES . 49

Particle Size . 49

Particle Size (Continued) 50

Rheology Control ... 50

Uniformity .... 51

Other Material Properties .... 51

END-USER INDUSTRIES ... 52

COMPANIES 52

FIGURE 5 CERAMIC POWDER END-USER INDUSTRIES (%) .. 52

OUTPUT .. 53

TABLE 19 U.S. MARKETS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC

COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 53

OVERALL U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE

CERAMIC POWDERS 54

TABLE 20 U.S. MARKETS FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE

CERAMIC POWDERS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$

MILLIONS) .... 54

FIGURE 6 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE

CERAMIC POWDERS BY TYPE OF POWDER, THROUGH 2016 (%

OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION BY VALUE) 55

FIGURE 6 (CONTINUED) .... 56

FIGURE 7 U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE

CERAMIC POWDERS BY TYPE OF END-USE, THROUGH 2016 (%

OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION BY VALUE) 56

FIGURE 7 (CONTINUED) .... 57

CHAPTER FOUR: OXIDE POWDERS .... 58

SUMMARY .... 58

MATERIAL TYPES 58

ALUMINA .... 58

ZIRCONIA .... 59

FERRITES .... 59

TITANATES . 59

BERYLLIA .... 59

MIXED COMPLEX OXIDES 59

SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION .. 60

ALUMINA .... 60

FIGURE 8 COMPARISON OF THE CONVENTIONAL SLURRY

PROCESS FOR - AL2O3 PRODUCTION WITH THAT USING

SOLUBLE ALKALI ADDITIVES 61

ZIRCONIA .... 62

Chemical Zirconia .. 62

Chlorination and Thermal Decomposition ... 62

Alkali Oxide Decomposition 62

Lime Diffusion .. 63

Plasma Zirconia 63

FIGURE 9 SCHEMATIC FOR PRODUCTION OF PLASMA

DISSOCIATED ZIRCONIA .... 64

Partially and Fully Stabilized Zirconia Powders ... 64

Hydrothermal Method for High-Purity Zirconia ... 65

FERRITES .... 65

FIGURE 10 FLOW DIAGRAM OF A SPRAY ROASTER OF THE TYPE

USED IN COMMERCIAL FERRITE POWDER PRODUCTION .... 65

TITANATES . 66

TABLE 21 STEPS TO SYNTHESIZE BATIO3 .. 66

SUPERCONDUCTOR POWDERS . 67

PROPERTIES .... 67

APPLICATIONS 68

SUPPLIERS .. 68

TABLE 22 MAJOR U.S. SUPPLIERS OF ADVANCED OXIDE CERAMIC

POWDERS AND PRODUCTS .... 69

MARKETS 70

ALUMINA .... 70

Prices .. 71

Sub-Segments .. 71

Electronics ... 71

TABLE 23 U.S. MARKETS FOR CERAMIC SUBSTRATES,

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, INSULATORS AND MCMS, THROUGH

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 71

TABLE 24 ALUMINA POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR ELECTRONIC

APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/ $ MILLIONS) . 72

Structural .... 72

TABLE 25 U.S. MARKETS FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR

STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$

MILLIONS) .... 73

Thermal Spray . 73

TABLE 26 U.S. MARKETS FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR THERMAL

SPRAY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 .. 74

Chemical Processing and Environment-Related .. 74

Membranes .... 74

TABLE 27 U.S. MARKETS FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR MEMBRANE

APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLIONS LBS/$ MILLIONS) 75

Filters ... 75

TABLE 28 U.S. MARKETS FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR CERAMIC

FILTERS THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS /$ MILLIONS) 75

Catalyst Supports .... 76

TABLE 29 U.S. MARKETS FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR CHEMICAL

PROCESSING CATALYST SUPPORTS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION

LBS/$ MILLIONS) .. 76

Combined Chemical Processing and Environmental

Market .... 76

TABLE 30 U.S. MARKETS FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR CHEMICAL

PROCESSING APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 016 (MILLION LB /$

MILLIONS) .... 77

Combined Alumina Markets .... 77

TABLE 31 U.S. MARKETS FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR

ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION

LBS/$ MILLIONS) .. 78

BERYLLIA .... 78

Prices .. 78

U.S. Markets 78

TABLE 32 BERYLLIA POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR

ELECTROCERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION

LBS /$ MILLION ) .. 79

ZIRCONIA .... 79

Prices .. 80

Markets ... 80

TABLE 33 U.S. MARKETS FOR ZIRCONIA POWDERS FOR

ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION

LBS/$ MILLIONS) .. 81

TITANIA AND TITANATES 81

Prices .. 81

Markets ... 82

TABLE 34 U.S. MARKETS FOR CERAMIC CAPACITORS AND

BARIUM TITANATE POWDERS, THROUGH 2016 ($

MILLION/MILLION LBS) .... 82

TABLE 35 U.S. MARKET FOR PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC

ELEMENTS AND LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE POWDERS,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLION/MILLION LBS) . 83

TABLE 36 TITANATE POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR ADVANCED

CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$

MILLIONS) .... 83

FERRITES .... 83

Prices .. 84

Markets ... 84

TABLE 37 MARKET FOR CERAMIC PERMANENT MAGNETS,

THROUGH 2016 . 85

TABLE 38 U.S. SOFT FERRITES MARKETS, THROUGH 2016

(MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) ... 85

TABLE 39 U.S. CONSUMPTION OF HARD AND SOFT FERRITES,

THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS / $ MILLIONS) . 86

SILICA 86

Prices .. 86

Markets ... 86

TABLE 40 U.S. CONSUMPTION OF SILICA POWDER FOR CATALYST

SUPPORTS THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) .. 87

MIXED OXIDES 87

Prices .. 87

Markets ... 88

TABLE 41 MIXED OXIDE POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR ADVANCED

CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$

MILLIONS) .... 88

OVERALL OXIDE MARKETS .. 88

TABLE 42 U.S. MARKETS FOR OXIDE CERAMIC POWDERS, 2010

THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) ... 89

CHAPTER FIVE: CARBIDE POWDERS . 90

MATERIAL TYPES 90

SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION .. 90

ACHESON PROCESS FOR SILICON CARBIDE .. 90

THERMAX PROCESS 91

FIGURE 11 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR A TUNGSTEN CARBIDE

FACILITY .. 92

ELECTRIC ARC PROCESS FOR BORON CARBIDE 93

SOL-GEL TECHNIQUE . 93

POLYMER PYROLYSIS .. 93

GAS-PHASE PROCESS .. 94

NIST PROCESS 95

PRODUCTION OF POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMICS .... 96

PROPERTIES .... 96

APPLICATIONS 96

APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) ... 97

SUPPLIERS .. 98

TABLE 43 MAJOR U.S. SUPPLIERS OF CARBIDE POWDERS FOR

ADVANCED CERAMICS APPLICATIONS ... 98

MARKETS 98

PRICES .... 99

MARKETS .... 99

TABLE 44 U.S. MARKETS FOR CARBIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED

CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, 2010 THROUGH 2016(MILLION LBS / $

MILLIONS) .. 100

CHAPTER SIX: NITRIDE POWDERS ... 101

MATERIAL TYPES ... 101

SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION 101

DIRECT NITRIDATION 101

CARBOTHERMAL REDUCTION 102

PYROLYSIS 103

GAS-PHASE REACTIONS 103

SOL-GEL TECHNIQUES .. 104

LASER OR MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS .... 104

PROPERTIES .. 104

APPLICATIONS ... 105

SUPPLIERS 106

TABLE 45 MAJOR U.S. SUPPLIERS OF NITRIDE POWDERS FOR

ADVANCED CERAMICS APPLICATIONS . 106

MARKETS ... 107

SILICON NITRIDE ... 107

Prices 107

Markets . 107

TABLE 46 U.S. MARKETS FOR SILICON NITRIDE POWDERS FOR

ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION

LBS/$ MILLIONS) 108

ALUMINUM NITRIDE .. 108

Prices 108

Markets . 108

TABLE 47 U.S. MARKETS FOR ALUMINUM NITRIDE POWDERS,

THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) . 109

BORON NITRIDE 109

Prices 110

Markets . 110

TABLE 48 U.S. MARKETS FOR BORON NITRIDE POWDERS FOR

ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION

LBS/$ MILLION) .. 110

OVERALL NITRIDE MARKETS . 110

TABLE 49 U.S. MARKETS FOR NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED

CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION LBS/$

MILLION) 111

CHAPTER SEVEN: BORIDE POWDERS ... 112

MATERIAL TYPES ... 112

SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION 113

PROPERTIES .. 113

APPLICATIONS ... 114

TITANIUM DIBORIDE . 114

ZIRCONIUM DIBORIDE ... 114

SUPPLIERS 115

MARKETS ... 115

PRICES .. 115

CONSUMPTION .. 115

TABLE 50 U.S. MARKETS FOR TITANIUM DIBORIDE POWDERS

FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016

(MILLION LBS/$ MILLION) ... 116

CHAPTER EIGHT: NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS . 117

MATERIAL TYPES ... 117

PROPERTIES .. 118

TABLE 51 SURFACE AREA OF SELECTED OXIDE POWDERS .... 119

FABRICATION OF NANOPOWDERS ... 120

GAS-PHASE PROCESSING ... 120

Gas-Phase Condensation ... 120

High Frequency Plasma-Chemical Process .... 121

Combustion Synthesis ... 121

Electroexplosion ... 122

Combustion Synthesis ... 122

FIGURE 12 SCHEMATIC OF PSI TECHNOLOGIES' CONTINUOUS

PROCESS FOR NANOSCALE POWDER SYNTHESIS . 123

WET PHASE PROCESSING ... 123

Conventional Chemical Precipitation .... 124

Hydrothermal Processing ... 124

Sol-Gel Processing ... 125

FIGURE 13 SOL-GEL SYNTHESIS FLOW CHART 125

Electric Dispersion Reaction ... 126

Thermochemical Synthesis 126

Microfluidizer Process ... 126

Microfluidizer Process (Continued) .. 127

Microemulsion Technology . 128

MECHANICAL PROCESSING .... 129

High-Energy Mechanical Milling 129

Mechanochemical Synthesis ... 130

APPLICATIONS ... 130

TABLE 52 POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

OF NANOCERAMIC POWDERS ... 130

TABLE 52 (CONTINUED) ... 131

TABLE 52 (CONTINUED) .... 132

CERAMIC FILTERS . 132

SUPERPLASTIC CERAMICS . 133

LOW PROCESSING TEMPERATURE COMPONENTS .... 133

OPTICAL/ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ... 133

CERAMIC-CERAMIC JOINING . 134

STRUCTURAL CERAMICS APPLICATIONS 134

CATALYSTS AND CATALYST SUPPORTS ... 134

FERROFLUIDS .... 134

SUNSCREENS 135

ADVANCED COATINGS .... 135

SUPPLIERS 135

TABLE 53 SUPPLIERS OF NANOCERAMIC POWDERS AND

PRODUCTS .. 135

TABLE 53 (CONTINUED) .... 136

PRODUCTS AND CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION .... 137

MARKET LEADERS . 138

MARKETS ... 138

TABLE 54 U.S. MARKETS FOR CERAMIC NANOPOWDERS BY

APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS TYPES, THROUGH 2016 ($

MILLION) 139

FIGURE 14 CERAMIC NANOPOWDER MARKET SEGENTS, 2010-2016

(%) .. 140

MARKETS (CONTINUED) 141

APPENDIX .. 142

PROFILES OF NORTH AMERICAN COMPANIES AND

INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN CERAMIC AND NANOCERAMIC

POWDERS .. 142

ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS LLC .... 142

ALMATIS GMBH . 143

ALUCHEM INC. .. 143

ALUMINUM CO. OF AMERICA (ALCOA) 143

AREMCO PRODUCTS ... 144

ARGONIDE CORP. ... 144

BAIKOWSKI INTERNATIONAL CORP. ... 144

BASF AG. .... 145

BAYER AG. 145

CABOT MICROELECTRONICS CORP. 145

CATHAY MAGNETICS . 146

CE MINERALS .... 146

CERALOX DIVISION/SASOL NORTH AMERICA, INC. ... 146

CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY INC. ... 147

COORSTEK 147

COTRONICS CORP. . 148

DA NANOMATERIALS LLC ... 148

E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS & CO. 148

ELECTRO ABRASIVES CORP. ... 148

ELKEM SILICON MATERIALS .. 149

EUTECTIC CORP. .... 149

FERRO CORPORATION .... 149

FERROTEC CORP. ... 150

FUJIMI CORP. 151

GELEST, INC. . 151

GFS CHEMICALS, INC. 151

HERMAN C. STARCK, INC. ... 152

HOOSIER MAGNETICS, INC. .... 152

INFRAMAT CORP. ... 152

ISHIHARA SANGYO KAISHA, LTD. .... 153

MACH I, INC. .. 153

M/A-COM TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS .. 153

MATERION CORP. ... 154

MEL CHEMICALS .... 154

MARKINTER CO. 154

MATERIALS MODIFICATION, INC. .... 154

MCP METAL SPECIALTIES .. 155

MER CORP. 155

MICRO ABRASIVES CORP. ... 156

MILLENNIUM MATERIAL INC. 157

MOMENTIVE PERFORMANCE MATERIALS, INC. ... 157

MOYCO PRECISION ABRASIVES, INC. .. 157

MUSCLE SHOALS MINERALS .. 158

NANOCEROX . 158

NANOCRYSTALS TECHNOLOGY LTD. ... 159

NANOPHASE TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 159

NEI CORP. . 160

NANOSCALE MATERIALS, INC. .... 160

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD. ... 161

NYACOL NANO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. . 161

ORTHOVITA CORP. . 162

PERFORMANCE CERAMICS CO. ... 162

PLANAR SOLUTIONS LLC .... 162

POWDER PROCESSING AND TECHONOLOGY .... 163

PQ CORP. ... 163

PRAXAIR SPECIALTY CERAMICS, INC. . 164

PRAXAIR SURFACE TECHNOLOGIES, INC. .... 164

PRIMET LLC ... 165

R.T. VANDERBILT COMPANY, INC. ... 165

READE ADVANCED MATERIALS .. 165

RHODIA, INC. . 166

RIO TINTO ALCAN .. 166

SAINT GOBAIN CERAMIC MATERIALS . 166

SASOL NORTH AMERICA 167

SOLVAY FLUORIDES .. 167

STREM CHEMICALS .... 168

SULZER METCO (U.S.), INC. . 168

SCI ENGINEEERED MATERIALS, INC. .. 168

SUPERIOR GRAPHITE CO. ... 169

SUPERIOR MICRO POWDERS ... 169

TOSOH USA .... 169

TRS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. .. 169

UBE AMERICA, INC. .... 170

UK ABRASIVES, INC. ... 170

UMICORE USA .... 170

UNIMIN CORP. ... 171

U.S. PRODUCTS CO. 171

WACKER CHEMICALS CORP. ... 171

WAH CHANG .. 171

WASHINGTON MILLS ELECTRO MINERALS CORP. .... 172

ZIRCOA, INC. .. 172

ZYP COATINGS, INC. ... 173

Z-TECH CORPORATION .. 173

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