Nanotechnology Now







Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button


DHgate

Home > Press > Material adapts to strain: Rice University lab creates self-strengthening nanocomposite

A small block of nanocomposite material proved its ability to stiffen under strain at a Rice University laboratory. (Credit Ajayan Lab/Rice University)
A small block of nanocomposite material proved its ability to stiffen under strain at a Rice University laboratory. (Credit Ajayan Lab/Rice University)

Abstract:
Researchers at Rice University have created a synthetic material that gets stronger from repeated stress much like the body strengthens bones and muscles after repeated workouts.

Material adapts to strain: Rice University lab creates self-strengthening nanocomposite

Houston, TX | Posted on March 23rd, 2011

Work by the Rice lab of Pulickel Ajayan, professor in mechanical engineering and materials science and of chemistry, shows the potential of stiffening polymer-based nanocomposites with carbon nanotube fillers. The team reported its discovery this month in the journal ACS Nano.

The trick, it seems, lies in the complex, dynamic interface between nanostructures and polymers in carefully engineered nanocomposite materials.

Brent Carey, a graduate student in Ajayan's lab, found the interesting property while testing the high-cycle fatigue properties of a composite he made by infiltrating a forest of vertically aligned, multiwalled nanotubes with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an inert, rubbery polymer. To his great surprise, repeatedly loading the material didn't seem to damage it at all. In fact, the stress made it stiffer.

Carey, whose research is sponsored by a NASA fellowship, used dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to test their material. He found that after an astounding 3.5 million compressions (five per second) over about a week's time, the stiffness of the composite had increased by 12 percent and showed the potential for even further improvement.

"It took a bit of tweaking to get the instrument to do this," Carey said. "DMA generally assumes that your material isn't changing in any permanent way. In the early tests, the software kept telling me, 'I've damaged the sample!' as the stiffness increased. I also had to trick it with an unsolvable program loop to achieve the high number of cycles."

Materials scientists know that metals can strain-harden during repeated deformation, a result of the creation and jamming of defects -- known as dislocations -- in their crystalline lattice. Polymers, which are made of long, repeating chains of atoms, don't behave the same way.

The team is not sure precisely why their synthetic material behaves as it does. "We were able to rule out further cross-linking in the polymer as an explanation," Carey said. "The data shows that there's very little chemical interaction, if any, between the polymer and the nanotubes, and it seems that this fluid interface is evolving during stressing."

"The use of nanomaterials as a filler increases this interfacial area tremendously for the same amount of filler material added," Ajayan said. "Hence, the resulting interfacial effects are amplified as compared with conventional composites.

"For engineered materials, people would love to have a composite like this," he said. "This work shows how nanomaterials in composites can be creatively used."

They also found one other truth about this unique phenomenon: Simply compressing the material didn't change its properties; only dynamic stress -- deforming it again and again -- made it stiffer.

Carey drew an analogy between their material and bones. "As long as you're regularly stressing a bone in the body, it will remain strong," he said. "For example, the bones in the racket arm of a tennis player are denser. Essentially, this is an adaptive effect our body uses to withstand the loads applied to it.

"Our material is similar in the sense that a static load on our composite doesn't cause a change. You have to dynamically stress it in order to improve it."

Cartilage may be a better comparison -- and possibly even a future candidate for nanocomposite replacement. "We can envision this response being attractive for developing artificial cartilage that can respond to the forces being applied to it but remains pliable in areas that are not being stressed," Carey said.

Both researchers noted this is the kind of basic research that asks more questions than it answers. While they can easily measure the material's bulk properties, it's an entirely different story to understand how the polymer and nanotubes interact at the nanoscale.

"People have been trying to address the question of how the polymer layer around a nanoparticle behaves," Ajayan said.
"It's a very complicated problem. But fundamentally, it's important if you're an engineer of nanocomposites.

"From that perspective, I think this is a beautiful result. It tells us that it's feasible to engineer interfaces that make the material do unconventional things."

Co-authors of the paper are former Rice postdoctoral researcher Lijie Ci; Prabir Patra, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Bridgeport; and Glaura Goulart Silva, associate professor at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Rice University and the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program funded the research.

####

About Rice University
Located on a 285-acre forested campus in Houston, Texas, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is known for its “unconventional wisdom." With 3,485 undergraduates and 2,275 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is less than 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice has been ranked No. 1 for best quality of life multiple times by the Princeton Review and No. 4 for "best value" among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance. To read "What they're saying about Rice," go to futureowls.rice.edu/images/futureowls/Rice_Brag_Sheet.pdf.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
David Ruth
713-348-6327


Mike Williams
713-348-6728

Copyright © Rice University

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related Links

Read the abstract at

Related News Press

News and information

New technique for exploring structural dynamics of nanoworld: Developed in a Nobel laureate's laboratory at Caltech, hybrid approach allows ultrafast EM analysis of materials, showing tiny electronic changes in individual atoms within a material on ultrafast time scales April 28th, 2015

When mediated by superconductivity, light pushes matter million times more April 28th, 2015

Chemists strike nano-gold: 4 new atomic structures for gold nanoparticle clusters: Research builds upon work by Nobel Prize-winning team from Stanford University April 28th, 2015

Self-assembling biomaterial forms nanostructure templates for human tissue formation April 27th, 2015

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Chemists strike nano-gold: 4 new atomic structures for gold nanoparticle clusters: Research builds upon work by Nobel Prize-winning team from Stanford University April 28th, 2015

International research team discovers new mechanism behind malaria progression: Findings provide a new avenue for research in malaria treatment April 27th, 2015

More is less in novel electronic material: Adding electrons actually shrinks the system April 27th, 2015

Two-dimensional semiconductor comes clean April 27th, 2015

Discoveries

New technique for exploring structural dynamics of nanoworld: Developed in a Nobel laureate's laboratory at Caltech, hybrid approach allows ultrafast EM analysis of materials, showing tiny electronic changes in individual atoms within a material on ultrafast time scales April 28th, 2015

When mediated by superconductivity, light pushes matter million times more April 28th, 2015

Chemists strike nano-gold: 4 new atomic structures for gold nanoparticle clusters: Research builds upon work by Nobel Prize-winning team from Stanford University April 28th, 2015

More is less in novel electronic material: Adding electrons actually shrinks the system April 27th, 2015

Materials/Metamaterials

More is less in novel electronic material: Adding electrons actually shrinks the system April 27th, 2015

The 16th Trends in Nanotechnology International Conference (TNT 2015) unveils 25 Keynote Speakers: Call for abstracts open April 27th, 2015

Graphenea celebrates fifth anniversary April 27th, 2015

Surface matters: Huge reduction of heat conduction observed in flat silicon channels April 23rd, 2015

Announcements

New technique for exploring structural dynamics of nanoworld: Developed in a Nobel laureate's laboratory at Caltech, hybrid approach allows ultrafast EM analysis of materials, showing tiny electronic changes in individual atoms within a material on ultrafast time scales April 28th, 2015

When mediated by superconductivity, light pushes matter million times more April 28th, 2015

Chemists strike nano-gold: 4 new atomic structures for gold nanoparticle clusters: Research builds upon work by Nobel Prize-winning team from Stanford University April 28th, 2015

Sensor Designed in Iran Able to Remove Formaldehyde Gas from Environment April 27th, 2015

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More










ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project