Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Catalyst Sandwich

Chad Mirkin
Chad Mirkin

Abstract:
Synthetic PCR mimic could lead to highly sensitive medical, environmental diagnostics

By Megan Fellman

Catalyst Sandwich

Evanston, IL | Posted on October 7th, 2010

Northwestern University researchers have taken another step towards realizing a new class of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme mimics, opening the door for the development of highly sensitive chemical detection systems that go beyond nucleic acid targets.

The blueprint for building synthetic structures to detect and signal the presence of targets such as small molecule medical analytes (signalers of disease or bodily malfunction, such as neurotransmitters) and environmental hazards, such as TNT, to name just a few, is inspired by biology and its allosteric enzymes. The method also could be useful in catalysis and the production of polymers, including plastics.

The work, which promises higher sensitivity than that of current detection tools, will be published Oct. 1 by the journal Science.

"PCR -- the backbone of the biodiagnostics industry -- is an enzyme that binds to a nucleic acid and changes shape, turning on a catalyst that makes copies of the nucleic acid for detection purposes," said Chad A. Mirkin, George B. Rathmann Professor of Chemistry in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences.

"What if you could do that for thousands of small molecules of interest?" he said. "We'd like to be able to detect tiny amounts of targets important to medicine and the environment, opening avenues to new types of diagnostic tools, just as PCR did for the modern fields of medical diagnostics and forensics. Our new catalysts could make that possible."

Mirkin led a team of chemists who built a synthetic structure that, much like the layers of an Oreo cookie, sandwiches the catalyst between two chemically inert layers. This triple-layer architecture allows the use of any catalyst as it will be kept inactive, or in an "off" state, until triggered by a specific small molecule.

The enzyme mimic behaves like allosteric enzymes found in nature, catalysts that change shape to carry out their functions. (Hemoglobin is an example of an allosteric enzyme.) When the mimic reacts with a specific small molecule, the triple-layer structure changes shape and opens, exposing the catalyst. The resulting catalytic reaction signals the presence of the small molecule target, much like PCR amplifies a single piece of DNA.

"One of our challenges as synthetic chemists has been learning to synthesize structures inspired by biology but that have nothing to do with biology other than the fact we'd like such complex functions realized in man-made systems," said Mirkin, also director of Northwestern's International Institute for Nanotechnology.

In the work reported in Science, the researchers use an aluminum salen complex as the catalyst in the three-layer structure. The addition of chloride (the reduced form of chlorine) triggers the catalyst and starts the polymerization process. (Chloride ion binds at an allosteric binding site, distant from the active or catalytic site.) The addition of an agent that removes the chloride stops the process, but the chloride can be added back to start it again.

The U.S. Air Force of Scientific Research, the Army Research Office and the National Science Foundation supported the research.

The title of the paper is "Allosteric Supramolecular Triple-Layer Catalysts." In addition to Mirkin, other authors of the paper are Hyo Jae Yoon, Junpei Kuwabara and Jun-Hyun Kim, all from Northwestern.

####

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Megan Fellman

Copyright © Northwestern University

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

'Lossless' metamaterial could boost efficiency of lasers and other light-based devices February 20th, 2017

Particles from outer space are wreaking low-grade havoc on personal electronics February 19th, 2017

Liquid metal nano printing set to revolutionize electronics: Creating integrated circuits just atoms thick February 18th, 2017

Engineers shrink microscope to dime-sized device February 17th, 2017

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

'Lossless' metamaterial could boost efficiency of lasers and other light-based devices February 20th, 2017

Engineers shrink microscope to dime-sized device February 17th, 2017

Francis Alexander Named Deputy Director of Brookhaven Lab's Computational Science Initiative February 16th, 2017

Good vibrations help reveal molecular details: Rice University scientists combine disciplines to pinpoint small structures in unlabeled molecules February 15th, 2017

Possible Futures

'Lossless' metamaterial could boost efficiency of lasers and other light-based devices February 20th, 2017

Particles from outer space are wreaking low-grade havoc on personal electronics February 19th, 2017

Liquid metal nano printing set to revolutionize electronics: Creating integrated circuits just atoms thick February 18th, 2017

Engineers shrink microscope to dime-sized device February 17th, 2017

Academic/Education

Oxford Nanoimaging report on how the Nanoimager, a desktop microscope delivering single molecule, super-resolution performance, is being applied at the MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology & Infection November 22nd, 2016

The University of Applied Sciences in Upper Austria uses Deben tensile stages as an integral part of their computed tomography research and testing facility October 18th, 2016

Enterprise In Space Partners with Sketchfab and 3D Hubs for NewSpace Education October 13th, 2016

New Agricultural Research Center Debuts at UCF October 12th, 2016

Nanomedicine

Good vibrations help reveal molecular details: Rice University scientists combine disciplines to pinpoint small structures in unlabeled molecules February 15th, 2017

In-cell molecular sieve from protein crystal February 14th, 2017

Cedars-Sinai, UCLA Scientists Use New ‘Blood Biopsies’ With Experimental Device to Speed Cancer Diagnosis and Predict Disease Spread: Leading-Edge Research Is Part of National Cancer Moonshot Initiative February 13th, 2017

Meta-lenses bring benchtop performance to small, hand-held spectrometer: Game-changing nanostructure-based lenses allow smaller devices, increased functionality February 9th, 2017

Announcements

'Lossless' metamaterial could boost efficiency of lasers and other light-based devices February 20th, 2017

Particles from outer space are wreaking low-grade havoc on personal electronics February 19th, 2017

Liquid metal nano printing set to revolutionize electronics: Creating integrated circuits just atoms thick February 18th, 2017

Engineers shrink microscope to dime-sized device February 17th, 2017

Environment

Meta-lenses bring benchtop performance to small, hand-held spectrometer: Game-changing nanostructure-based lenses allow smaller devices, increased functionality February 9th, 2017

NIST updates 'sweet' 1950s separation method to clean nanoparticles from organisms January 27th, 2017

Investigating the impact of natural and manmade nanomaterials on living things: Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology develops tools to assess current and future risk January 9th, 2017

PCATDES Starts Field Testing of Photocatalytic Reactors in South East Asia December 28th, 2016

Nanobiotechnology

Good vibrations help reveal molecular details: Rice University scientists combine disciplines to pinpoint small structures in unlabeled molecules February 15th, 2017

In-cell molecular sieve from protein crystal February 14th, 2017

Cedars-Sinai, UCLA Scientists Use New ‘Blood Biopsies’ With Experimental Device to Speed Cancer Diagnosis and Predict Disease Spread: Leading-Edge Research Is Part of National Cancer Moonshot Initiative February 13th, 2017

Nanobiotix appoints senior executive from pharmaceutical industry, as Chief Operating Officer: Oncology industry veteran to oversee operations and product commercialization February 8th, 2017

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project