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|Dr. Mahendra Patel, Author of this book, making a presentation on “Applications of Micro and Nanotechnology in Paper Manufacturing” in PaperAsia2010 at Bangkok|
Nanotechnology has grown up now from its state of infancy. This being, multidisciplinary, it is time now to assemble and assess the various developments, taken place in main as well as relevant areas for applications to an industry. This book has reviewed all such developments with their level of applications to pulp, paper, packaging and forest products industry. A large number of the developments made or can be made for pulp, paper and allied industries, using micro and nano science and technology have been discussed in this book. Thus, this book will be useful not only to the forest products industries but also to the suppliers and others, developing new products and processes on nanotechnology.
The book consists of 530 pages in 37 chapters divided into five sections. The first section is designed to familiarize both beginners and advanced readers with the basic concepts, terminology and latest developments in nanotechnology. The section also provides an overview of the impact and general application of nanotechnology across several industries. Section 2 covers nanotechnology in raw materials and on the different stages of paper manufacturing. Section 3 covers nanotechnology in packaging, printing and in specialty papers. Section 4 covers nanotechnology in production techniques, environmental and in energy issues. Section 5 covers the latest research and development initiatives on Nanotechnology and the future of Nanotechnology.
Priced: 120 (+20 US dollars for airmailing)
For the first time, a book on "Applications of Nanotechnology to Paper Manufacturing" has been written. Presently, the concept of paper manufacturing is mostly at macro level. In fact, some of the ongoing processes already involve micro and even nanotechnology though it is not clearly known to the paper manufacturers. This book gives the guidelines and roadmap how to jump from the present level to micro and then nano level to enter into nano-era. All cutting-edge technologies have been reexamined in terms of nanotechnology and required concept as well as R & D required have been suggested in this book. A few examples from the book are cited below.
Biotechnological applications in paper manufacturing with micro-organisms are known since many years. The concept for genetically engineered trees is based on the micro phenomena. Plantation programme of these trees can solve the raw material crisis in paper industry and help for sustainable development, which are explained here. Nanotechnology applications to wood preservation and performance along with the micro structures of wood have been the subject of a chapter.
In the pulping process, the mechanism of liquid penetration, reaction and diffusion rates, which control delignification of wood chips in modern fibreline technologies, is explained to be governed by the micro and nano phenomena involving the plant morphology and composition, pores, chemicals and thermodynamic conditions. In the modern bleaching processes, including ECF and TCF technology, it is shown how microstructure plays important role.
One of the technologies, known as micro-particle technology, already in application in the Wet end area, is explained to be actually nanotechnology. Structure and properties of micro and nano particles of bentonite (Montmorillonite) and colloidal silica, characterized essentially by their large surface area (silica- 800m2/g and montmorillonite of 1 nm thickness), alumina and aluminosilicates are discussed. The recent micro polymer technology claimed to be serving better than the micro-particle technology is also included in this book. According to one industry estimate, there are over 1,000 nanoparticle-driven paper machines in use today.
Development of the paper coating technology and functional surfaces at nano level are again lacking. Today, narrow particle size distribution kaolin clays are offering new possibilities in coating engineering. This makes it possible to use technologies developed in the world of liquid crystals and colloid chemistry, for example, to allow a self-assembly of the components to take place.
Better and more specific performance of barriers and protective coatings in packaging materials produced by the use of clay-based nanocomposites as films and coatings; antibacterial paper using nano metals inside clays. With the help of high resolution Field emission scanning electron microscope and improvised systems for crude mineral resources, coated properties can be improved by decreasing kaolin platelets to a thickness below 100 nm. Kaolinite clays and other pigments prepared in nanoscale is the base for nano engineered products.
GCC is a typical example of producing fine materials by top-down method, while PCC, which is synthetically prepared, has the scope of absorbing bottom-up nanotechnology.
For environmental protection, technologies providing minimum usage of water, energy etc can be possible if the understanding at micro and nano level can be accomplished. Advanced membrane technology has applications in raw and wastewater treatment. One of the processes to increase the water recycling is by nanofiltration. Nanofiltration is a pressure driven membrane separation process. Nanofilters are able to separate even the largest ions, but e.g. chlorine ions are too small to be completely segregated.
In the energy sector, a new energy storage device has been developed that easily could be mistaken for a simple sheet of black paper. The nanoengineered battery is lightweight, ultra thin, completely flexible, and geared toward meeting the trickiest design and energy requirements.
A number of nanotechnology based applications have been made in packaging such as Power for intelligent packaging, such as radiofrequency identification (RFID);
The LSA system (Laser Surface Authentication system)
A new kind of nanopaper stronger than cast iron and tougher than bone has been reported
Smart printed solutions, printed electronics and IT clusters have evolved separately. New growth areas for paper based products can be found with creative development activities. Patterned application of new electrically conductive polymeric materials include using a combination of ink-jet printing to create simple electronic devices that could form the basis of smart packaging functions in future.
Conducting polymers are a relatively new class of chemical compound that find application in potentially lower cost replacements for silicon-based semiconductors in the rapidly growing fields of flexible and printable electronic devices. The potential for incorporating printable electronics in packaging applications is being actively pursued. To be successful, any conducting polymer coating must be applied in a controlled manner and at low cost.
Calendar rolls have been produced using ceramic nanocomposites. Nanopearl was recently developed, which has advantage over all other traditional products with lesser cost and lesser power consumption.
The Nanoparticle production techniques included in this book are both top-down and bottom-up techniques, namely Condensation from a vapour, Chemical synthesis, Solid-state processes and high energy milling. Particles can then be coated with hydrophilic or hydrophobic substances depending on the desired application.
A new mechanism for formation of advanced ceramic materials using agro-residues like rice husk, termed as "Substrate mechanism" has been discussed. Special ceramic fibres and whiskers have been produced by introducing the salt solution of the metal in the lumens, followed by drying, cooking and then pyrolising at high temperatures Fibres of rice husk, jute and sisal have been used to produce whiskers of silicon carbide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, zeolite and alumino-silicates.
The advanced analytical techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy, SEM and TEM and X-ray Spectrometry employed in these studies have also been reviewed. The financial investments made on nanotechnology by different developed countries; R & D projects, Roadmap, Economics etc on paper and related areas have been discussed concluding with a Forecasting technology on the Future of nanotechnology applications.
This book can serve as Reference book in paper, packaging, forest products, mineral and related industries and R & D.
A large number of SEM and AFM micrographs for plant fibres, additives (Mineral fillers and pigments), paper and paper products explaining the micro and nano characteristics are presented in this book.
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Dr M. Patel
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