Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > First Tunable, ‘Noiseless’ Amplifier May Boost Quantum Computing, Communications

In the JILA/NIST “noiseless” amplifier, a long line of superconducting magnetic sensors (beginning on the right in this photograph) made of sandwiches of two layers of superconducting niobium with aluminum oxide in between, creates a 'metamaterial' that selectively amplifies microwaves based on their amplitude rather than phase.

Credit: M. Castellanos-Beltran/JILA
In the JILA/NIST “noiseless” amplifier, a long line of superconducting magnetic sensors (beginning on the right in this photograph) made of sandwiches of two layers of superconducting niobium with aluminum oxide in between, creates a 'metamaterial' that selectively amplifies microwaves based on their amplitude rather than phase.

Credit: M. Castellanos-Beltran/JILA

Abstract:
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and JILA, a joint institute of NIST and the University of Colorado (CU) at Boulder, have made the first tunable "noiseless" amplifier. By significantly reducing the uncertainty in delicate measurements of microwave signals, the new amplifier could boost the speed and precision of quantum computing and communications systems.

First Tunable, ‘Noiseless’ Amplifier May Boost Quantum Computing, Communications

GAITHERSBURG, MD | Posted on October 15th, 2008

Conventional amplifiers add unwanted "noise," or random fluctuations, when they measure and boost electromagnetic signals. Amplifiers that theoretically add no noise have been demonstrated before, but the JILA/NIST technology, described in an Oct. 5, 2008, advance online publication of Nature Physics,* offers better performance and is the first to be tunable, operating between 4 and 8 gigahertz, according to JILA group leader Konrad Lehnert. It is also the first amplifier of any type ever to boost signals sufficiently to overcome noise generated by the next amplifier in a series along a signal path, Lehnert says, a valuable feature for building practical systems.

Noisy amplifiers force researchers to make repeated measurements of, for example, the delicate quantum states of microwave fields—that is, the shape of the waves as measured in amplitude (or power) and phase (or point in time when each wave begins). The rules of quantum mechanics say that the noise in amplitude and phase can't both be zero, but the JILA/NIST amplifier exploits a loophole stipulating that if you measure and amplify only one of these parameters—amplitude, in this case—then the amplifier is theoretically capable of adding no noise. In reality, the JILA/NIST amplifier adds about half the noise that would be expected from measuring both amplitude and phase.

The JILA/NIST amplifier could enable faster, more precise measurements in certain types of quantum computers—which, if they can be built, could solve some problems considered intractable today—or quantum communications systems providing "unbreakable" encryption. It also offers the related and useful capability to "squeeze" microwave fields, trading reduced noise in the signal phase for increased noise in the signal amplitude. By combining two squeezed entities, scientists can "entangle" them, linking their properties in predictable ways that are useful in quantum computing and communications. Entanglement of microwave signals, as opposed to optical signals, offer some practical advantages in computing and communication such as relatively simple equipment requirements, Lehnert says.

The new amplifier is a 5-millimeter-long niobium cavity lined with 480 magnetic sensors called SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices). The line of SQUIDs acts like a "metamaterial," a structure not found in nature that has strange effects on electromagnetic energy. Microwaves ricochet back and forth inside the cavity like a skateboarder on a ramp. Scientists tune the wave velocity by manipulating the magnetic fields in the SQUIDs and the intensity of the microwaves. An injection of an intense pump tone at a particular frequency, like a skateboarder jumping at particular times to boost speed and height on a ramp, causes the microwave power to oscillate at twice the pump frequency. Only the portion of the signal which is synchronous with the pump is amplified.

Funding for the research was provided by NIST, the National Science Foundation, and a NIST-CU seed grant.

* M.A. Castellanos-Beltran, K.D. Irwin, G.C. Hilton, L.R. Vale and K.W. Lehnert. Amplification and squeezing of quantum noise with a tunable Josephson metamaterial. Nature Physics, published online: 5 Oct. 5 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1090.

Edited on Oct. 15, 2008, to update caption and citation.

####

About NIST
Founded in 1901, NIST is a non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST's mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Laura Ost

(303) 497-4880

Copyright © NIST

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

In IEDM 2016 Keynote, Leti CEO Says ‘Hyperconnectivity’, Human-focused Research and the IOT Promise Profound, Positive Changes December 7th, 2016

Leti IEDM 2016 Paper Clarifies Correlation between Endurance, Window Margin and Retention in RRAM for First Time: Paper Presented at IEDM 2016 Offers Ways to Reconcile High-cycling Requirements and Instability at High Temperatures in Resistive RAM December 6th, 2016

Tokyo Institute of Technology research: 3D solutions to energy savings in silicon power transistors December 6th, 2016

Physicists decipher electronic properties of materials in work that may change transistors December 6th, 2016

Govt.-Legislation/Regulation/Funding/Policy

Physicists decipher electronic properties of materials in work that may change transistors December 6th, 2016

Construction of practical quantum computers radically simplified: Scientists invent ground-breaking new method that puts quantum computers within reach December 5th, 2016

Shape matters when light meets atom: Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices December 4th, 2016

Research Study: MetaSOLTM Shatters Solar Panel Efficiency Forecasts with Innovative New Coating: Coating Provides 1.2 Percent Absolute Enhancement to Triple Junction Solar Cells December 2nd, 2016

Quantum Computing

Construction of practical quantum computers radically simplified: Scientists invent ground-breaking new method that puts quantum computers within reach December 5th, 2016

Shape matters when light meets atom: Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices December 4th, 2016

Single photon converter -- a key component of quantum internet November 28th, 2016

Leti and Grenoble Partners Demonstrate World’s 1st Qubit Device Fabricated in CMOS Process: Paper by Leti, Inac and University of Grenoble Alpes Published in Nature Communications November 28th, 2016

Discoveries

Leti IEDM 2016 Paper Clarifies Correlation between Endurance, Window Margin and Retention in RRAM for First Time: Paper Presented at IEDM 2016 Offers Ways to Reconcile High-cycling Requirements and Instability at High Temperatures in Resistive RAM December 6th, 2016

Tokyo Institute of Technology research: 3D solutions to energy savings in silicon power transistors December 6th, 2016

Physicists decipher electronic properties of materials in work that may change transistors December 6th, 2016

Fast, efficient sperm tails inspire nanobiotechnology December 5th, 2016

Announcements

In IEDM 2016 Keynote, Leti CEO Says ‘Hyperconnectivity’, Human-focused Research and the IOT Promise Profound, Positive Changes December 7th, 2016

Leti IEDM 2016 Paper Clarifies Correlation between Endurance, Window Margin and Retention in RRAM for First Time: Paper Presented at IEDM 2016 Offers Ways to Reconcile High-cycling Requirements and Instability at High Temperatures in Resistive RAM December 6th, 2016

Tokyo Institute of Technology research: 3D solutions to energy savings in silicon power transistors December 6th, 2016

Physicists decipher electronic properties of materials in work that may change transistors December 6th, 2016

Quantum nanoscience

Physicists decipher electronic properties of materials in work that may change transistors December 6th, 2016

Shape matters when light meets atom: Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices December 4th, 2016

Trickling electrons: Close to absolute zero, the particles exhibit their quantum nature November 10th, 2016

Scientists set traps for atoms with single-particle precision: Technique may enable large-scale atom arrays for quantum computing November 7th, 2016

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project