Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Unregulated nanoparticles from diesel engines inhibit lungs

Abstract:
Diesel engines emit countless carbon nanoparticles into the air, slipping through government regulation and vehicle filters. A new University of Michigan simulation shows that these nanoparticles can get trapped in the lungs and inhibit the function of a fluid that facilitates breathing.

Unregulated nanoparticles from diesel engines inhibit lungs

ANN ARBOR, MI | Posted on August 20th, 2008

Lung surfactant is a fluid containing protein and lipid molecules. It reduces surface tension in the lungs, prevents them from collapsing and helps transport foreign particles that will ultimately be expelled from the lungs.

Inhaled carbon nanoparticles, however, appear to behave differently than most foreign particles. Computer simulations indicated that they wouldn't be expelled, but would become trapped in the surfactant, entangled with fatty lipid molecules that wrapped their tails around the nanoparticles and into their central cavities.

"The presence of the nanoparticle can hinder the function of lung surfactant by affecting the interaction between the lipids and peptides," said Angela Violi, assistant professor in the U-M College of Engineering. A peptide is a piece of a protein. Violi was scheduled to present her findings during her invited talk at the American Chemical Society meeting Aug. 20.

This is believed to be the first time researchers have demonstrated how these nanoparticles can get caught in the lungs and affect the behavior of surfactant. Other studies have shown that buildup of nanoparticles in the lungs can lead to inflammation, blood clotting and changes in breathing and heart rates.

"There is mounting evidence that very small particles have a greater negative impact on health than larger particles," Violi said. "Nanoparticles emitted by diesel engines and other combustion sources are a health concern because of both their size and the carcinogens with which they are associated. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that there is currently no effective regulatory control of these nanoparticles."

Current U.S. and European diesel emissions regulations address particle sizes of 2.5 microns or larger. (A micron is one-thousandth of a millimeter.) That's still up to three orders of magnitude larger than the nanoparticles Violi studies. Carbon nanoparticles make up only 0.1 to 1.5 percent of the total mass of particles diesel engines emit, but in terms of the number of particles, nanos compose between 35 percent and 97 percent of the emissions, depending on the traffic.

The computer model Violi created to run this simulation can also predict how various combustible materials will burn, what nanoparticles will be created, how those particles will be shaped and how they could affect the lungs. This tool could be useful in predicting biofuel emissions, Violi says.

"It could help us reach the goal of engineering biofuel molecules to reduce emissions," Violi said. It's conceivable that engineers could genetically modify plants to produce cleaner burning fuels, she said. Violi will also discuss these applications in her American Chemical Society talk.

Violi is an assistant professor in the departments of Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering.

The presentation at the Chemical Society's meeting in Philadelphia is called "Lipid membrane uptake of carbonaceous nanoparticles from combustion sources." A related paper on this research titled "Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of a Pulmonary Surfactant Film Interacting with a Carbonaceous Nanoparticle" will be published in the Oct.15 issue of Biophysical Journal.

For more information on Violi, visit: www-personal.umich.edu/~avioli/
American Chemical Society: www.acs.org

####

About University of Michigan
The University of Michigan College of Engineering is ranked among the top engineering schools in the country. At more than $130 million annually, its engineering research budget is one of largest of any public university. Michigan Engineering is home to 11 academic departments and a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center. The college plays a leading role in the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Energy Institute and hosts the world class Lurie Nanofabrication Facility.

For more information, please click here

Contacts:
Nicole Casal Moore
(734) 647-1838 or (734) 647-7087

Copyright © University of Michigan

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

News and information

Bosch announces high-performance MEMS acceleration sensors for wearables June 27th, 2017

Nanometrics to Participate in the 9th Annual CEO Investor Summit 2017: Accredited investor and publishing research analyst event held concurrently with SEMICON West and Intersolar 2017 in San Francisco June 27th, 2017

NMRC, University of Nottingham chooses the Quorum Q150 coater for its reliable and reproducible film thickness when coating samples with iridium June 27th, 2017

Picosunís ALD solutions enable novel high-speed memories June 27th, 2017

Discoveries

Physicists make quantum leap in understanding life's nanoscale machinery June 27th, 2017

Picosunís ALD solutions enable novel high-speed memories June 27th, 2017

Atomic imperfections move quantum communication network closer to reality June 25th, 2017

Research accelerates quest for quicker, longer-lasting electronics: UC Riverside-led research makes topological insulators magnetic well above room temperatures June 25th, 2017

Announcements

Bosch announces high-performance MEMS acceleration sensors for wearables June 27th, 2017

Nanometrics to Participate in the 9th Annual CEO Investor Summit 2017: Accredited investor and publishing research analyst event held concurrently with SEMICON West and Intersolar 2017 in San Francisco June 27th, 2017

NMRC, University of Nottingham chooses the Quorum Q150 coater for its reliable and reproducible film thickness when coating samples with iridium June 27th, 2017

Picosunís ALD solutions enable novel high-speed memories June 27th, 2017

Environment

Enhanced photocatalytic activity by Cu2O nanoparticles integrated H2Ti3O7 nanotubes June 21st, 2017

Can crab shells provide a 'green' solution to malaria? Study shows how a mixture of chitin and silver nanoparticles inhibits growth of mosquito larvae May 12th, 2017

NanoMONITOR shares its latest developments concerning the NanoMONITOR Software and the Monitoring stations April 21st, 2017

Wood filter removes toxic dye from water April 21st, 2017

Automotive/Transportation

Letiís Autonomous-Vehicle System Embedded in Infineonís AURIX Platform: Letiís Low-Power, Multi-Sensor System that Transforms Distance Data into Clear Information About the Driving Environment Will Be Demonstrated at ITS Meeting in Strasbourg, June 19-22 June 20th, 2017

Development of low-dimensional nanomaterials could revolutionize future technologies June 15th, 2017

GLOBALFOUNDRIES Launches 7nm ASIC Platform for Data Center, Machine Learning, and 5G Networks FX-7TM offering leverages the companyís 7nm: FinFET process to deliver best in class IP and Solutions June 13th, 2017

Leti Announces Two New Tools for Improving Transportation Comfort, Safety and Efficiency: Wearable Device Measures Stress Responses for Travelers, Pilots and Truck Drivers, While Smartphone App Provides Transit Agencies Broad Data on Transport Modes June 13th, 2017

Safety-Nanoparticles/Risk management

Tests show no nanotubes released during utilisation of nanoaugmented materials June 9th, 2017

NanoMONITOR shares its latest developments concerning the NanoMONITOR Software and the Monitoring stations April 21st, 2017

NIST updates 'sweet' 1950s separation method to clean nanoparticles from organisms January 27th, 2017

Nanoparticle exposure can awaken dormant viruses in the lungs January 17th, 2017

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE



  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project