Nanotechnology Now

Our NanoNews Digest Sponsors

Heifer International

Wikipedia Affiliate Button

Home > Press > Explosives at the microscopic scale produce shocking results

Abstract:
U.S. troops blew up enemy bridges with explosives in World War II to slow the advance of supplies or enemy forces.

Explosives at the microscopic scale produce shocking results

LIVERMORE, CA | Posted on December 10th, 2007

In modern times, patrollers use explosives at ski resorts to purposely create avalanches so the runs are safer when skiers arrive.

Other than creating the desired effect (a destroyed bridge or avalanche), the users didn't exactly know the microscopic details and extreme states of matter found within a detonating high explosive.

In fact, most scientists don't know what happens either.

But researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created the first quantum molecular dynamics simulation of a shocked explosive near detonation conditions, to reveal what happens at the microscopic scale.

What they found is quite riveting: The explosive, nitromethane, undergoes a chemical decomposition and a transformation into a semi-metallic state for a limited distance behind the detonation front.

Nitromethane is a more energetic high explosive than TNT, although TNT has a higher velocity of detonation and shattering power against hard targets. Nitromethane is oxygen poor, but when mixed with ammonium nitrate can be extremely lethal, such as in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.

"Despite the extensive production and use of explosives for more than a century, their basic microscopic properties during detonation haven't been unraveled," said Evan Reed, the lead author of a paper appearing in the Dec. 9 online edition of the journal, Nature Physics. "We've gotten the first glimpse of the properties by performing the first quantum molecular dynamics simulation."

In 2005 alone, 3.2 billion kilograms of explosives were sold in the United States for a wide range of applications, including mining, demolition and military applications.

Nitromethane is burned as a fuel in drag racing autos, but also can be made to detonate, a special kind of burning in which the material undergoes a much faster and far more violent type of chemical transformation. With its single nitrogen dioxide (NO2) group, it is a simple representative version of explosives with more NO2 groups.

Though it is an optically transparent, electrically insulating material, it undergoes a shocking transformation: It turns into an optically reflecting, nearly metallic state for a short time behind the detonation shock wave front.

But further behind the wave front, the material returns to being optically transparent and electrically insulating.

"This is the first observation of this behavior in a molecular dynamics simulation of a shocked material," Reed said. "Ultimately, we may be able to create computer simulations of detonation properties of new, yet-to-be synthesized designer explosives."

Other Livermore researchers include M. Riad Manaa, Laurence Fried, Kurt Glaesemann and J.D. Joannopoulos of MIT.

The work was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

####

About Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a national security laboratory, with a mission to ensure national security and apply science and technology to the important issues of our time. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

Contacts:
Anne M. Stark
Phone: (925) 422-9799

Copyright © Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

If you have a comment, please Contact us.

Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Bookmark:
Delicious Digg Newsvine Google Yahoo Reddit Magnoliacom Furl Facebook

Related News Press

Discoveries

Fighting cancer with sticky nanoparticles September 27th, 2016

Gold nanoparticles conjugated quercetin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and invasiveness via EGFR/VEGFR-2 mediated pathway in breast cancer September 27th, 2016

UNAM develops successful nano edible coating which increases life food September 27th, 2016

Crystalline Fault Lines Provide Pathway for Solar Cell Current: New tomographic AFM imaging technique reveals that microstructural defects, generally thought to be detrimental, actually improve conductivity in cadmium telluride solar cells September 26th, 2016

Announcements

Dr Barbara Armbruster promoted to Worldwide Sales and Marketing Director for XEI Scientific September 27th, 2016

Fighting cancer with sticky nanoparticles September 27th, 2016

Gold nanoparticles conjugated quercetin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and invasiveness via EGFR/VEGFR-2 mediated pathway in breast cancer September 27th, 2016

UNAM develops successful nano edible coating which increases life food September 27th, 2016

Military

Tattoo therapy could ease chronic disease: Rice-made nanoparticles tested at Baylor College of Medicine may help control autoimmune diseases September 23rd, 2016

Nano-lipid particles from edible ginger could improve drug delivery for colon cancer, study finds September 8th, 2016

3-D graphene has promise for bio applications: Rice University-led team welds nanoscale sheets to form tough, porous material September 7th, 2016

Nanodiamonds in an instant: Rice University-led team morphs nanotubes into tougher carbon for spacecraft, satellites September 6th, 2016

Quantum nanoscience

Chains of nanogold – forged with atomic precision September 23rd, 2016

Notre Dame researchers find transition point in semiconductor nanomaterials September 6th, 2016

NREL Discovery Creates Future Opportunity in Quantum Computing: Research into perovskites looks beyond material’s usage for efficient solar cells September 1st, 2016

Light and matter merge in quantum coupling: Rice University physicists probe photon-electron interactions in vacuum cavity experiments August 24th, 2016

NanoNews-Digest
The latest news from around the world, FREE




  Premium Products
NanoNews-Custom
Only the news you want to read!
 Learn More
NanoTech-Transfer
University Technology Transfer & Patents
 Learn More
NanoStrategies
Full-service, expert consulting
 Learn More











ASP
Nanotechnology Now Featured Books




NNN

The Hunger Project







Car Brands
Buy website traffic