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Home > Nanotechnology Columns > US-EU-Africa-Asia-Pacific and Caribbean Nanotechnology Initiative (USEACANI) > US-EU-Africa-Asia-Pacific and Caribbean Nanotechnology Initiative (USEACANI) Workshop

Ejembi Onah
President
Focus Nanotechnology Africa Inc(FONAI)

Abstract:
Recently the US-EU-Africa-Asia-Pacific and Caribbean Nanotechnology Initiative (USEACANI) held its first workshop. The workshop which was held online from June 21-26, 2009 brought together top nanoscientists and nanotechnologists from within the 158 countries covered by the initiative to discuss novel developments in nanoeducation, nanomedicine, nanoenergy, nanofiltration, nanosensors, nanofinancing, nanotech strategies and policies crucial to these regions in an alliance of academia, private sector and policy makers. The initiative has a budget of $10 billion for 10 years.

October 9th, 2009

US-EU-Africa-Asia-Pacific and Caribbean Nanotechnology Initiative (USEACANI) Workshop

Ejembi John Onah, D.Sc
Founding President Focus Nanotechnology Africa Inc (FONAI), Ithaca USA
Chairman Steering Committee, USEACANI, CO-Chair-US-EU-Africa-Asia-Pacific and Caribbean Academy of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (USEACANN) and Editor-In-Chief, Journal Nanotechnology Progress International (JONPI).


Abstract
Recently the US-EU-Africa-Asia-Pacific and Caribbean Nanotechnology Initiative (USEACANI) held its first workshop. The workshop which was held online from June 21-26, 2009 brought together top nanoscientists and nanotechnologists from within the 158 countries covered by the initiative to discuss novel developments in nanoeducation, nanomedicine, nanoenergy, nanofiltration, nanosensors, nanofinancing, nanotech strategies and policies crucial to these regions in an alliance of academia, private sector and policy makers. The initiative has a budget of $10 billion for 10 years.

Introduction
USEACANI is a major nanoscience and nanotechnology initiative covering the 158 countries of US, EU, Africa, Asia, Pacific and the Caribbean with a ten years budget of $10 billion.1-3 The objectives of the initiative are:
.Improve institutional structures so they foster and nurture development
·Support long-term nanoscience and engineering research leading to fundamental discoveries of novel phenomena, processes and tools;
·Encourage inter-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional cooperation required in nanoscience and nanotechnology;
·Provide new types of education to train the experts in nanoscience and nanotechnology and entrepreneurs of the future;
·Create the physical infrastructure to enable first-class basic research, exploration of applications, development of new industries, and rapid commercialization of innovations in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.


The workshop brought together nanoexperts within the 158 countries of coverage to discuss new development crucial to these regions: Nanoeducation, nanomedicine, nanoenergy, nanofiltration, nanoagriculture, nanosensors, nanofinancing, nanotech strategies and policies.

Workshop
The workshop was multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional and multi-national in a union of academia, private sector and policy makers. Papers were presented in nanoenergy, nanomedicine, nanosensors, nanofinancing, nanoeducation, nanotech strategies and policies.4-6

Nanoenergy 6,7-15
In nanoenergy papers talked about nanosolar and nanofuel cells: Research in this area is motivated by the possibility of designing nanostructured materials that possess novel electronic, optical, magnetic, photochemical and catalytic properties. Such materials are essential for technological advances in quantum electronics, nonlinear optics, photonics, and information storage and processing to produce cheaper highly efficient, durable solar cells.

Nanomedicine 6,16-23
Presentation on nanomedicine were centered on drug delivery vehicles and vaccines for prevention and cures of HIV/AIDS, cancer, tumor, diabetes, malaria, tuberculosis, etc: Research to evaluate and improve dendritic cells (DCs) as effective antigen presenting cells for vaccination, in vitro uptake, toxicity, phenotypic consequences and transfection efficiency of stealth NGR/PEG/PDBA-coupled-SHA-PEI/pDNA targeting nanoparticles loaded with PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri-block copolymer in human monocyte-derived DCs were investigated.16 Another study was designed to elucidate at the nano-level, using atomic force microscopy, the interplay of low GI vs. high GI foods, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) on the microvilli cuboidal and columnar epithelium brush border nanostructures of the jejunum, duodenum and ileum in a type 2 diabetes animal model. Nanoparticles made from retinoic acid coated with CaCO3 (nanoegg -atRA) were recently developed as a new drug delivery system with possible anti-diabetic and anti-cancer application.17 Research also included surface modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SM-SLN) formulation as a sustained delivery system of nevirapine, a prototype antiretroviral drug.18 SM-SLN containing nevirapine with and without phospholipid was formulated by melt emulsification with high pressure homogenization and characterized by particle size, wide angle X-ray diffraction, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release using a modified Franz diffusion cell. Approach included the use of recombinant viral vectors expressing various reporter genes that could be diversely engineered to mimic the wild type parental virus as much as is required.19 To guarantee safety, the viral vectors are also engineered to undergo only a single replicative cycle. Using such recombinant single-cycle-infection viral vectors based on lentiviruses, retroviruses and adenoviruses as model nanoprobes, several medicinal plants for anti-HIV and anti-adenoviral properties were screened. Novel nano-conjugate made of folic acid and gold nanoparticle (AuNP) were designed for cancer cell targeting.20 This nano-conjugate has application for selective targeting of the folate receptor that is overexpressed on the surface of tumoral cells. For this purpose, we made 4-aminothiophenol, as a bifunctional linker to react with HAuCl4 in the presence of sodium borohydride and it was binded to the AuNP surface through its thiol group. Then, we conjugated amino-terminated nanoparticles to folic acid with an amide linkage formation. Finally, specific interaction between the folic acid and AuNP by the corresponding observed characteristic bands in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra were investigated. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images reveal the spherical AuNPs formation induced by the bifunctional linker. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the metallic face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice structure with (111), (200), (220), and (311) crystal planes. We estimated the average size of the conjugated nanoparticles to be about 48 nm by TEM and XRD. The Elemental analysis and atomic absorption showed 59 % organic molecules on the surface of AuNPs. Cross-linked polymers have been shown to be of benefit in nanomedicine as drug delivery vehicles.21 In this study, generation of mucinated cellulosic micro-fibers was achieved by mixing of mucin (Mc) dispersion with solubilized microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and recovered with acetone at controlled temperature conditions. Studies included analysis of HIV at ECWA hospital, Nigeria-sub-Saharan Africa showed a total of 835 patients tested positive out of 6240 screened. 577 (67.5%) were females, 278 (32.4%) were males giving a male to female ratio of 1:2.22 Their ages ranged from 2weeks to 75 years, with mean age of 32 years (SD = 11.5). The out patient department (OPD) and antenatal clinic (ANC) had the highest HIV positive patients - 59.5% and 13.7% respectively. The 21-30 and 31-40 year age ranges had the highest percentage of HIV positive of 43.1% and 24.5% respectively. Females were found to be 3-5 times more likely to be infected than males below 30 years, but more males than females had HIV infection after 40 years. Pediatrics patients had 4.5% testing HIV positive. Young adults (20-30 years) are more likely to have HIV infection. There were studies describing the application of nanoparticles of medical origin in a modified form as antibiotics.23

Nanofiltration 6,24
The nanofiltration theme is meant for production of affordable clean water and other separation of complex systems: Studies on nanofibers from melts by utilizing recently developed melt electrospinning facilities were reported. One important aspect of nanofibers from melt is that of dissolution of polymers in organic solvents and their removal/ recycling are not required. Thus, it is important to tailor the properties of melt electrospun nanofibers (100 nm - 1 µm) for their commercial applications. To this end, the continuous production of submicron-scale fibers directly from polymer melts such as PCL PLA, PET and their nanocomposites via multiple nozzle systems has been explored.

Nanofinancing 6,25
For nano discoveries to lead to explosion of industries for economic development, financing is very important: This study looks at model for nanofinancing.


Nanotech Strategies and Policies 6, 26-28
Nanobasket is a definition for multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional and multi-national approaches to nanosciences and nanotechnology. The coming together of different professionals, institutions and nations to identify and solve nanosciencetech problem is the hallmark of scientific discovery. This paper discussed new perceptions to formation of nanonetwork, directions and applications. Studies also drew on development literature as well as mixed methods research, conducted since 2004, that has looked at quantitative indicators of nanotechnology's global emergence as well as perspectives from ‘key informants' from both Thailand and Australia and proposed new explorations into nanotechnology's potential synergy with mechanisms such as Open Source design and Real-time Technology Assessment. There is need for Sub Sahara Africa to design institutional and policy framework that will encourage the region to be an active participant in the nanotechnology revolution discussed one of the presentations. Developing countries have great human potential and vast resources to foster nanoscience and nanotechnology worldwide presented another paper. This paper further emphasized the importance of international collaborations and multidisciplinary work in developing countries.

Nanoeducation 6,29
Nanoeducation through publications, seminars, workshop, conferences, etc is a crucial aspect to create the necessary awareness for the initiative: The presenter in this theme highlighted nanoeducation at K-16 and the emerging issues.

Conclusion
The objective of the workshop in bringing together nanoexperts across disciplines, institutions and nations in an alliance of academia, policy makers and private sector was excellently accomplished. The presentations on nanomedicine, nanoenergy, nanofiltration, nanoeducation, nanosensors, nanotech strategies and policies gave outstanding scientific insights into crucial problems of these regions and appropriate remedies. The papers submitted and discussed, presented an educative tool for the region of coverage and globally.


Reference
1. http://www.fonai.org/USEACANI.html
2. http://www.merid.org/NDN/more.php?id=1727
3. http://content.usatoday.com/topics/article/Places,+Geography/Regions/Caribbean/033D1Wp5ne8Ma/1
4. http://www.fonai.org/News.html
5. http://content.usatoday.com/topics/article/Places,+Geography/Regions/Asia/092c091fwdaFZ/1
6.Onah, E.J. US-EU-Asia-Africa-Pacific and Caribbean Nanotechnology Initiative (USEACANI); nanobasket, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
7.El-Shall S. Synthesis, characterization and application of nanoparticles, nanowires and polymer nanocomposites, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
8.Maaza M., Beye A.C., Manyala N., Zorkani I., Otiti T., Aurag H., Fasasi A., Mensa A., Torto N., Chinyama K., Eljaziri S., Minani E., Njaka J.M., Genene D. Tailored nano-systems for energy and photonics applications: ongoing projects within the Nanosciences African Network, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
9.Ezema F.I., Ezugwu S.C., Ekwualor A.B.C., Asogwa P.U., Osuji R.U. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanowires, and CdS/TlS nanoflower grown in a polymer matrix by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
10.Kahwa I.A., Singh-Wilmot M.A., Richard Johnson R.U., Mckenzie S.P., Dawkins T., Wedermier-Davis T.C. Lanthanide (III) clusters: Metal - metal interactions, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
11.Chaudhary A.K., Maaza M., Fasasi A.Y., Nanwandwe M., Beye A.C., Neethling P. Study of electric field induced second harmonic (EFISH) generation from Au and Ag implanted LiNbO3 nano composites, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
12.Ezekoye B.A., Ezema F.I., Arome A., Eze E.N. Synthesis and characterizations of CuSe (CS) nano thin films for photovoltaic applications, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
13.Jose V.G., Ballestero M.S., Study of the relationship between nanoparticle of silica and thermoplastic polymers (TPU) in nanocomposite, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
14.Missan H., Lalia B.S., Stewart K. Nano-composite polymer electrolyte membranes containing
15.Anyebe A.O., Ekpenyong K.I. Versatility of product formation in non-aqueous hydrolysis of a fatty ester as precursors for nanotechnology application, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
16.Moffatt S., Christiano J.R. A novel PLGA-PEG-PLGA-encapsulated NGR-coupled stealth PEI/pDNA nanoparticle assembly for targeting human monocyte-derived dendritic cells: A paradigm for efficient DNA vaccination, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
17.Green C.O., Wheatley A.O., Dilworth L.L., Asemota H.N. Ortanique peel biomolecules: Characterization and nanoparticularization for potential biomedical application, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
18.Attama A.A. Evaluation of surface modified solid lipid nanoparticles containing nevirapine, an antiretroviral drug for controlled delivery and targeting, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
19.Esimone C. Single-cycle- infection viral vectors as model probes for antiviral screening studies in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
20.Mansoori G. A., Shakeri-Zadeh A., Hashemian A. R. Conjugation of gold nanoparticles with folic acid (for cancer cells nanotechnology-based targeting), abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
21.Builders P. F., Kunle O. O., Ezenwa P, Adikwu. M. U.Generation of mucinated cellulosic micro-fibers by mucin and microcrystalline cellulose hybridization with potentials for nanomedicine, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
22.Odumu P.A. HIV/AIDS in Africa and the Caribbeans: A descriptive analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in a Nigerian mission hospital for applications in nanomedicine, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
23.Onifade A. K. , Agara-Jackson O.O. , Jeff-AgboolaY. A. , Daso I. O. Incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the Ondo State of Nigeria case study and nanomedicine approaches, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
24.Ugbolue S., Subramanian C., Warner S. B. Melt electrospun nanofibers for applications in filtration, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
25.Iwezulu P. Nano Financing: Prospects for industrial development, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
26.Maclurcan D. C., Nanotechnology and the creation of a more equitable world, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
27.Ajibefun I.A. Nanotechnology and sustainable development: The place of sub Sahara Africa and policy considerations, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
28.Terrones M. How to foster nanoscience and nanotechnology in the developing world: The importance of multidisciplinary work and international collaborations, abstract to USEACANI online workshop June 21-26, 2009
29. Sweeney A. Educating the next generation of scientists and engineers:Nanotechnology in the K-16 science curriculum, abstract to USEACANI online
workshop June 21-26, 2009














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